Class ComplexZmanimCalendar
 java.lang.Object

 net.sourceforge.zmanim.AstronomicalCalendar

 net.sourceforge.zmanim.ZmanimCalendar

 net.sourceforge.zmanim.ComplexZmanimCalendar

 All Implemented Interfaces:
Cloneable
public class ComplexZmanimCalendar extends ZmanimCalendar
This class extends ZmanimCalendar and provides many more zmanim than available in the ZmanimCalendar. The basis for most zmanim in this class are from the sefer Yisroel Vehazmanim by Rabbi Yisrael Dovid Harfenes. As an example of the number of different zmanim made available by this class, there are methods to return 14 different calculations for alos (dawn) and 25 for tzais available in this API. The real power of this API is the ease in calculating zmanim that are not part of the library. The methods for zmanim calculations not present in this class or it's superclass
ZmanimCalendar
are contained in theAstronomicalCalendar
, the base class of the calendars in our API since they are generic methods for calculating time based on degrees or time before or aftersunrise
andsunset
and are of interest for calculation beyond zmanim calculations. Here are some examples.First create the Calendar for the location you would like to calculate:
String locationName = "Lakewood, NJ"; double latitude = 40.0828; // Lakewood, NJ double longitude = 74.2094; // Lakewood, NJ double elevation = 20; // optional elevation correction in Meters // the String parameter in getTimeZone() has to be a valid timezone listed in //
TimeZone.getAvailableIDs()
TimeZone timeZone = TimeZone.getTimeZone("America/New_York"); GeoLocation location = new GeoLocation(locationName, latitude, longitude, elevation, timeZone); ComplexZmanimCalendar czc = new ComplexZmanimCalendar(location); // Optionally set the date or it will default to today's date czc.getCalendar().set(Calendar.MONTH, Calendar.FEBRUARY); czc.getCalendar().set(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH, 8);Note: For locations such as Israel where the beginning and end of daylight savings time can fluctuate from year to year, if your version of Java does not have an up to date timezone database, create a
SimpleTimeZone
with the known start and end of DST. To get alos calculated as 14° below the horizon (as calculated in the calendars published in Montreal), addAstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
(90) to the 14° offset to get the desired time:
Date alos14 = czc.getSunriseOffsetByDegrees(
AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ 14);To get mincha gedola calculated based on the Magen Avraham (MGA) using a shaah zmanis based on the day starting 16.1° below the horizon (and ending 16.1° after sunset) the following calculation can be used:
Date minchaGedola = czc.getTimeOffset(czc.getAlos16point1Degrees(), czc.getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees() * 6.5);
or even simpler using the included convenience methods
Date minchaGedola = czc.getMinchaGedola(czc.getAlos16point1Degrees(), czc.getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees());
A little more complex example would be calculating zmanim that rely on a shaah zmanis that is not present in this library. While a drop more complex, it is still rather easy. An example would be to calculate the Trumas Hadeshen's alos to tzais based plag hamincha as calculated in the Machzikei Hadass calendar in Manchester, England. A number of this calendar's zmanim are calculated based on a day starting at alos of 12° before sunrise and ending at tzais of 7.083° after sunset. Be aware that since the alos and tzais do not use identical degree based offsets, this leads to chatzos being at a time other than the
solar transit
(solar midday). To calculate this zman, use the following steps. Note that plag hamincha is 10.75 hours after the start of the day, and the following steps are all that it takes.
Date plag = czc.getPlagHamincha(czc.getSunriseOffsetByDegrees(
AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ 12), czc.getSunsetOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ ZENITH_7_POINT_083));Something a drop more challenging, but still simple, would be calculating a zman using the same "complex" offset day used in the above mentioned Manchester calendar, but for a shaos zmaniyos based zman not not supported by this library, such as calculating the point that one should be makpid not to eat on erev Shabbos or erev Yom Tov. This is 9 shaos zmaniyos into the day.
 Calculate the shaah zmanis in milliseconds for this day
 Add 9 of these shaos zmaniyos to alos starting at 12°
long shaahZmanis = czc.getTemporalHour(czc.getSunriseOffsetByDegrees(
AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ 12), czc.getSunsetOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ ZENITH_7_POINT_083)); Date sofZamnAchila = getTimeOffset(czc.getSunriseOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ 12), shaahZmanis * 9);Calculating this sof zman achila according to the GRA is simplicity itself.
Date sofZamnAchila = czc.getTimeOffset(czc.getSunrise(), czc.getShaahZmanisGra() * 9);
Documentation from the
The ZmanimCalendar is a specialized calendar that can calculate sunrise and sunset and Jewish zmanim (religious times) for prayers and other Jewish religious duties. This class contains the main functionality of the Zmanim library. For a much more extensive list of zmanim use theZmanimCalendar
parent classComplexZmanimCalendar
that extends this class. See documentation for theComplexZmanimCalendar
andAstronomicalCalendar
for simple examples on using the API. According to Rabbi Dovid Yehudah Bursztyn in his Zmanim Kehilchasam (second edition published in 2007) chapter 2 (pages 186187) no zmanim besides sunrise and sunset should use elevation. However Rabbi Yechiel Avrahom Zilber in the Birur Halacha Vol. 6 Ch. 58 Pages 34 and 42 is of the opinion that elevation should be accounted for in zmanim calculations. Related to this, Rabbi Yaakov Karp in Shimush Zekeinim, Ch. 1, page 17 states that obstructing horizons should be factored into zmanim calculations. The setting defaults to false (elevation will not be used for zmanim calculations), unless the setting is changed to true inZmanimCalendar.setUseElevation(boolean)
. This will impact sunrise and sunset based zmanim such asAstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
,AstronomicalCalendar.getSunset()
,ZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShmaGRA()
, alos based zmanim such asZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShmaMGA()
that are based on a fixed offset of sunrise or sunset and zmanim based on a percentage of the day such asgetSofZmanShmaMGA90MinutesZmanis()
that are based on sunrise and sunset. It will not impact zmanim that are a degree based offset of sunrise and sunset, such asgetSofZmanShmaMGA16Point1Degrees()
orgetSofZmanShmaBaalHatanya()
.Note: It is important to read the technical notes on top of the
AstronomicalCalculator
documentation before using this code.I would like to thank Rabbi Yaakov Shakow, the author of Luach Ikvei Hayom who spent a considerable amount of time reviewing, correcting and making suggestions on the documentation in this library.
Disclaimer:
I did my best to get accurate results, but please doublecheck before relying on these zmanim for halacha lemaaseh. Author:
 © Eliyahu Hershfeld 2004  2018


Field Summary
Fields Modifier and Type Field Description private double
ateretTorahSunsetOffset
The offset in minutes (defaults to 40) after sunset used for tzeit for Ateret Torah calculations.protected static double
ZENITH_1_POINT_583
The zenith of 1.583° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_10_POINT_2
The zenith of 10.2° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_11_DEGREES
The zenith of 11° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_11_POINT_5
The zenith of 11.5° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_13_POINT_24
The zenith of 13.24° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_16_POINT_9
The zenith of 16.9° below geometric zenith (90°).protected static double
ZENITH_19_DEGREES
The zenith of 19° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_19_POINT_8
The zenith of 19.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_26_DEGREES
The zenith of 26° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_3_POINT_65
The zenith of 3.65° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_3_POINT_676
The zenith of 3.676° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_3_POINT_7
The zenith of 3.7° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_3_POINT_8
The zenith of 3.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_4_POINT_37
The zenith of 4.37° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_4_POINT_61
The zenith of 4.61° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_4_POINT_8
The zenith of 5.88° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_5_POINT_88
The zenith of 5.88° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_5_POINT_95
The zenith of 5.95° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_6_DEGREES
The zenith of 6° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_6_POINT_45
The zenith of 6.45° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_7_POINT_083
The zenith of 7.083° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_7_POINT_65
The zenith of 7.65° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_7_POINT_67
The zenith of 7.67° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_9_POINT_3
The zenith of 9.3° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_9_POINT_5
The zenith of 9.5° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static double
ZENITH_9_POINT_75
The zenith of 9.75° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).
Fields inherited from class net.sourceforge.zmanim.ZmanimCalendar
ZENITH_16_POINT_1, ZENITH_8_POINT_5

Fields inherited from class net.sourceforge.zmanim.AstronomicalCalendar
ASTRONOMICAL_ZENITH, CIVIL_ZENITH, GEOMETRIC_ZENITH, HOUR_MILLIS, MINUTE_MILLIS, NAUTICAL_ZENITH


Constructor Summary
Constructors Constructor Description ComplexZmanimCalendar()
Default constructor will set a defaultGeoLocation()
, a defaultAstronomicalCalculator
and default the calendar to the current date.ComplexZmanimCalendar(GeoLocation location)

Method Summary
All Methods Instance Methods Concrete Methods Deprecated Methods Modifier and Type Method Description Date
getAlos120()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 120 minutes beforesea level sunrise
(no adjustment for elevation is made) based on the time to walk the distance of 5 Mil( Ula) at 24 minutes a Mil.Date
getAlos120Zmanis()
This method returns alos (dawn) calculated using 120 minutes zmaniyos or 1/6th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting).Date
getAlos16Point1Degrees()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is16.1°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.Date
getAlos18Degrees()
A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is18°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.Date
getAlos19Degrees()
A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is19°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.Date
getAlos19Point8Degrees()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is19.8°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.Date
getAlos26Degrees()
A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is26°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.Date
getAlos60()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated as 60 minutes before sunrise.Date
getAlos72Zmanis()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 72 minutes zmaniyos or 1/10th of the day before sunrise.Date
getAlos90()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 90 minutes beforesea level sunrise
based on the time to walk the distance of 4 Mil at 22.5 minutes a Mil.Date
getAlos90Zmanis()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 90 minutes zmaniyos or 1/8th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting).Date
getAlos96()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 96 minutes before beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting) that is based on the time to walk the distance of 4 Mil at 24 minutes a Mil.Date
getAlos96Zmanis()
This method returns alos (dawn) calculated using 96 minutes zmaniyos or 1/7.5th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting).Date
getAlosBaalHatanya()
Returns the Baal Hatanya's alos (dawn) calculated as the time when the sun is 16.9° below the easterngeometric horizon
beforesunrise
.double
getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()
Returns the offset in minutes after sunset used to calculate sunset for the Ateret Torah zmanim.Date
getBainHasmashosRT13Point24Degrees()
Method to return Bain Hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated when the sun is13.24°
below the westerngeometric horizon
(90°) after sunset.Date
getBainHasmashosRT13Point5MinutesBefore7Point083Degrees()
This method returns the time of bain hashmashos based on the calculation of 13.5 minutes (3/4 of an 18 minute Mil before shkiah calculated as7.083°
.Date
getBainHasmashosRT2Stars()
This method returns bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated according to the opinion of the Divrei Yosef (see Yisrael Vehazmanim) calculated 5/18th (27.77%) of the time between alos (calculated as 19.8° before sunrise) and sunrise.Date
getBainHasmashosRT58Point5Minutes()
This method returns Bain Hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated as a 58.5 minute offset after sunset.Date
getFixedLocalChatzos()
A method that returns the local time for fixed chatzos.private Date
getMidnightLastNight()
Used by Molad based zmanim to determine if zmanim occur during the current day.private Date
getMidnightTonight()
Used by Molad based zmanim to determine if zmanim occur during the current day.Date
getMinchaGedola16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the time of mincha gedola according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon.Date
getMinchaGedola30Minutes()
This method returns mincha gedola calculated as 30 minutes afterchatzos
and not 1/2 of ashaah zmanis
afterchatzos
as calculated byZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola(java.util.Date, java.util.Date)
.Date
getMinchaGedola72Minutes()
This method returns the time of mincha gedola according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset.Date
getMinchaGedolaAteretTorah()
This method returns the time of mincha gedola based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).Date
getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the time of mincha gedola.Date
getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanyaGreaterThan30()
This is a convenience method that returns the later ofgetMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
.Date
getMinchaGedolaGreaterThan30()
This is a convenience method that returns the later ofZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
.Date
getMinchaKetana16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the time of mincha ketana according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon.Date
getMinchaKetana72Minutes()
This method returns the time of mincha ketana according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset.Date
getMinchaKetanaAteretTorah()
This method returns the time of mincha ketana based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).Date
getMinchaKetanaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the time of mincha ketana.Date
getMisheyakir10Point2Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is10.2°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).Date
getMisheyakir11Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is11°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).Date
getMisheyakir11Point5Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is11.5°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).Date
getMisheyakir7Point65Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is7.65°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).Date
getMisheyakir9Point5Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is9.5°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).private Date
getMoladBasedTime(Date moladBasedTime, Date alos, Date tzais, boolean techila)
Returns the Date of the molad based time if it occurs on the current date.Since Kiddush Levana can only be said during the day, there are parameters to limit it to between alos and tzais.Date
getPlagAlos16Point1ToTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais
. 10.75 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time.Date
getPlagAlosToSunset()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends atsunset
. 10.75 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time.Date
getPlagHamincha120Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 120 minutes before sunrise and ending 120 minutes after sunset.Date
getPlagHamincha120MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on sunrise being 120 minutes zmaniyos or 1/6th of the day before sunrise.Date
getPlagHamincha16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais 16.1°
.Date
getPlagHamincha18Degrees()
Date
getPlagHamincha19Point8Degrees()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 19.8°
and ends attzais 19.8°
.Date
getPlagHamincha26Degrees()
Date
getPlagHamincha60Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 60 minutes before sunrise and ending 60 minutes after sunset.Date
getPlagHamincha72Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset.Date
getPlagHamincha72MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha.Date
getPlagHamincha90Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 90 minutes before sunrise and ending 90 minutes after sunset.Date
getPlagHamincha90MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha.Date
getPlagHamincha96Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 96 minutes before sunrise and ending 96 minutes after sunset.Date
getPlagHamincha96MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha.Date
getPlagHaminchaAteretTorah()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).Date
getPlagHaminchaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha.long
getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 120 minutes.long
getShaahZmanis120MinutesZmanis()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.long
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 16.1°.long
getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a 18° dip.long
getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a 19.8° dip.long
getShaahZmanis26Degrees()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 26°.long
getShaahZmanis60Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (solar hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA).long
getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (solar hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA).long
getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.long
getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 90 minutes.long
getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.long
getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 96 minutes.long
getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.long
getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah calculated with alos being 1/10th of sunrise to sunset day, or72
minutes zmaniyos of such a day beforesunrise
, and tzais is usually calculated as40 minutes
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) aftersunset
.long
getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's a shaah zmanis (temporal hour
).Date
getSofZmanAchilasChametzBaalHatanya()
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Baal Hatanya.Date
getSofZmanAchilasChametzGRA()
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the GRA.Date
getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA72Minutes()
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanBiurChametzBaalHatanya()
This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Baal Hatanya.Date
getSofZmanBiurChametzGRA()
Date
getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA72Minutes()
This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days()
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana calculated as 15 days after the molad.Date
getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days(Date alos, Date tzais)
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana calculated as 15 days after the molad.Date
getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos()
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana according to the Maharil's opinion that it is calculated as halfway between molad and molad.Date
getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos(Date alos, Date tzais)
Returns the latest time of Kidush Levana according to the Maharil's opinion that it is calculated as halfway between molad and molad.Date
getSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) calculated as 3 hours (regular and not zmaniyos) beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
.Date
getSofZmanShmaAlos16Point1ToSunset()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends atsea level sunset
. 3 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time.Date
getSofZmanShmaAlos16Point1ToTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais 7.083°
. 3 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time.Date
getSofZmanShmaAteretTorah()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).Date
getSofZmanShmaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning).Date
getSofZmanShmaFixedLocal()
A method that returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) calculated as 3 hours beforegetFixedLocalChatzos()
.Date
getSofZmanShmaKolEliyahu()
Deprecated.As per a conversation Rabbi Yisroel Twerski had with Rabbi Harfenes, this zman published in the Yisrael Vehazmanim was based on a misunderstanding and should not be used.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA120Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes or 1/6th of the day beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA18Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being18°
beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA19Point8Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being19.8°
beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA72Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA72MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA90Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA90MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA96Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanShmaMGA96MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfila2HoursBeforeChatzos()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) calculated as 2 hours beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the latest zman tfilah (time to recite the morning prayers).Date
getSofZmanTfilaFixedLocal()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) calculated as 2 hours beforegetFixedLocalChatzos()
.Date
getSofZmanTfilahAteretTorah()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA120Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA18Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being18°
beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA19Point8Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being19.8°
beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA72Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA72MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA90Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA90MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA96Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes beforesunrise
.Date
getSofZmanTfilaMGA96MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.Date
getSolarMidnight()
A method that returns "solar" midnight, or the time when the sun is at its nadir.private Date
getSunriseBaalHatanya()
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's netz amiti (sunrise) withoutelevation adjustment
.private Date
getSunsetBaalHatanya()
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's shkiah amiti (sunset) withoutelevation adjustment
.Date
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days()
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to Rabbeinu Yonah's opinion that it can be said 3 days after the molad.Date
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days(Date alos, Date tzais)
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to Rabbeinu Yonah's opinion that it can be said 3 days after the molad.Date
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days()
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to the opinions that it should not be said until 7 days after the molad.Date
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days(Date alos, Date tzais)
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to the opinions that it should not be said until 7 days after the molad.Date
getTzais120()
This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham that the time to walk the distance of a Mil according to the Rambam's opinion is 2/5 of an hour (24 minutes) for a total of 120 minutes based on the opinion of Ula who calculated tzais as 5 Mil after sea level shkiah (sunset).Date
getTzais120Zmanis()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 120 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
.Date
getTzais16Point1Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos16Point1Degrees()
Date
getTzais18Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos18Degrees()
Date
getTzais19Point8Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos19Point8Degrees()
Date
getTzais26Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos26Degrees()
Date
getTzais60()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Chavas Yair and Divrei Malkiel that the time to walk the distance of a Mil is 15 minutes for a total of 60 minutes for 4 Mil aftersea level sunset
.Date
getTzais72Zmanis()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 72 minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day aftersea level sunset
.Date
getTzais90()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 90 minutes after sea level sunset.Date
getTzais90Zmanis()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 90 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
.Date
getTzais96()
A method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 96 minutes after sea level sunset.Date
getTzais96Zmanis()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 96 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
.Date
getTzaisAteretTorah()
This method returns tzais usually calculated as 40 minutes (configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) after sunset.Date
getTzaisBaalHatanya()
A method that returns tzais (nightfall) when the sun is 6° below the western geometric horizon (90°) aftersunset
.Date
getTzaisGeonim3Point65Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil based on an 18 minute Mil, or 13.5 minutes.Date
getTzaisGeonim3Point676Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil based on an 18 minute Mil, or 13.5 minutes.Date
getTzaisGeonim3Point7Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at3.7°
below the western horizon.Date
getTzaisGeonim3Point8Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at3.8°
below the western horizon.Date
getTzaisGeonim4Point37Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil, based on a 22.5 minute Mil, or 16 7/8 minutes.Date
getTzaisGeonim4Point61Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil based on a 24 minute Mil, or 18 minutes.Date
getTzaisGeonim4Point8Degrees()
Date
getTzaisGeonim5Point88Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a 24 minute Mil, based on a Mil being 24 minutes, and is calculated as 18 + 2 + 4 for a total of 24 minutes.Date
getTzaisGeonim5Point95Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at5.95°
below the western horizon.Date
getTzaisGeonim6Point45Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim as calculated by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Tucazinsky.Date
getTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 30 minutes after sunset during the equinox in Yerushalayim.Date
getTzaisGeonim7Point67Degrees()
This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 45 minutes after sunset during the summer solstice in New York, when the neshef (twilight) is the longest.Date
getTzaisGeonim8Point5Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at8.5°
below the western horizon.Date
getTzaisGeonim9Point3Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the calculations used in the Luach Itim Lebinah as the stringent time for tzais.Date
getTzaisGeonim9Point75Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 60 minutes after sunset during the equinox in New York.Date
getZmanMolad()
Returns the the point in time of Molad as aDate
Object.void
setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double ateretTorahSunsetOffset)
Allows setting the offset in minutes after sunset for the Ateret Torah zmanim.
Methods inherited from class net.sourceforge.zmanim.ZmanimCalendar
getAlos72, getAlosHashachar, getCandleLighting, getCandleLightingOffset, getChatzos, getElevationAdjustedSunrise, getElevationAdjustedSunset, getMinchaGedola, getMinchaGedola, getMinchaKetana, getMinchaKetana, getPlagHamincha, getPlagHamincha, getShaahZmanisGra, getShaahZmanisMGA, getSofZmanShma, getSofZmanShmaGRA, getSofZmanShmaMGA, getSofZmanTfila, getSofZmanTfilaGRA, getSofZmanTfilaMGA, getTzais, getTzais72, isAssurBemlacha, isUseElevation, setCandleLightingOffset, setUseElevation

Methods inherited from class net.sourceforge.zmanim.AstronomicalCalendar
clone, equals, getAstronomicalCalculator, getBeginAstronomicalTwilight, getBeginCivilTwilight, getBeginNauticalTwilight, getCalendar, getDateFromTime, getEndAstronomicalTwilight, getEndCivilTwilight, getEndNauticalTwilight, getGeoLocation, getSeaLevelSunrise, getSeaLevelSunset, getSunrise, getSunriseOffsetByDegrees, getSunriseSolarDipFromOffset, getSunset, getSunsetOffsetByDegrees, getSunsetSolarDipFromOffset, getSunTransit, getSunTransit, getTemporalHour, getTemporalHour, getTimeOffset, getTimeOffset, getUTCSeaLevelSunrise, getUTCSeaLevelSunset, getUTCSunrise, getUTCSunset, hashCode, setAstronomicalCalculator, setCalendar, setGeoLocation, toJSON, toString




Field Detail

ZENITH_3_POINT_7
protected static final double ZENITH_3_POINT_7
The zenith of 3.7° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim that tzais is the time it takes to walk 3/4 of a Mil at 18 minutes a Mil, or 13.5 minutes after sunset. The sun is 3.7° belowgeometric zenith
at this time in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes.

ZENITH_3_POINT_8
protected static final double ZENITH_3_POINT_8
The zenith of 3.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim that tzais is the time it takes to walk 3/4 of a Mil at 18 minutes a Mil, or 13.5 minutes after sunset. The sun is 3.8° belowgeometric zenith
at this time in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes.

ZENITH_5_POINT_95
protected static final double ZENITH_5_POINT_95
The zenith of 5.95° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 24 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes, which calculates to 5.95° belowgeometric zenith
.

ZENITH_7_POINT_083
protected static final double ZENITH_7_POINT_083
The zenith of 7.083° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This is often referred to as 7°5' or 7° and 5 minutes. This calculation is used for calculating alos (dawn) and tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 30 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes, which calculates to 7.0833333° belowgeometric zenith
. This is time some opinions consider dark enough for 3 stars to be visible. This is the opinion of the Sh"Ut Melamed Leho'il, Sh"Ut Bnei Tziyon, Tenuvas Sadeh and very close to the time of the Mekor Chesed of the Sefer chasidim. See Also:
getTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()
,getBainHasmashosRT13Point5MinutesBefore7Point083Degrees()
, Constant Field Values To Do:
 Confirm the proper source.

ZENITH_10_POINT_2
protected static final double ZENITH_10_POINT_2
The zenith of 10.2° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 45 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes which calculates to 10.2° belowgeometric zenith
.

ZENITH_11_DEGREES
protected static final double ZENITH_11_DEGREES
The zenith of 11° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 48 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes which calculates to 11° belowgeometric zenith
 See Also:
getMisheyakir11Degrees()
, Constant Field Values

ZENITH_11_POINT_5
protected static final double ZENITH_11_POINT_5
The zenith of 11.5° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 52 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes which calculates to 11.5° belowgeometric zenith

ZENITH_13_POINT_24
protected static final double ZENITH_13_POINT_24
The zenith of 13.24° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating Rabbeinu Tam's bain hashmashos according to some opinions. NOTE: See comments ongetBainHasmashosRT13Point24Degrees()
for additional details about the degrees.

ZENITH_19_DEGREES
protected static final double ZENITH_19_DEGREES
The zenith of 19° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating alos according to some opinions.

ZENITH_19_POINT_8
protected static final double ZENITH_19_POINT_8
The zenith of 19.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating alos (dawn) and tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 90 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes which calculates to 19.8° belowgeometric zenith

ZENITH_26_DEGREES
protected static final double ZENITH_26_DEGREES
The zenith of 26° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating alos (dawn) and tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun120 minutes
after sunset in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes which calculates to 26° belowgeometric zenith

ZENITH_4_POINT_37
protected static final double ZENITH_4_POINT_37
The zenith of 4.37° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun16 7/8 minutes
after sunset (3/4 of a 22.5 minute Mil) in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes which calculates to 4.37° belowgeometric zenith

ZENITH_4_POINT_61
protected static final double ZENITH_4_POINT_61
The zenith of 4.61° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun18 minutes
after sunset (3/4 of a 24 minute Mil) in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes which calculates to 4.61° belowgeometric zenith

ZENITH_4_POINT_8
protected static final double ZENITH_4_POINT_8
The zenith of 5.88° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). See Also:
getTzaisGeonim4Point8Degrees()
, Constant Field Values To Do:
 Add more documentation.

ZENITH_3_POINT_65
protected static final double ZENITH_3_POINT_65
The zenith of 3.65° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun13.5 minutes
after sunset (3/4 of an 18 minute Mil) in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes which calculates to 3.65° belowgeometric zenith

ZENITH_3_POINT_676
protected static final double ZENITH_3_POINT_676
The zenith of 3.676° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). See Also:
 Constant Field Values
 To Do:
 Add more documentation.

ZENITH_5_POINT_88
protected static final double ZENITH_5_POINT_88
The zenith of 5.88° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). See Also:
 Constant Field Values
 To Do:
 Add more documentation.

ZENITH_1_POINT_583
protected static final double ZENITH_1_POINT_583
The zenith of 1.583° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating netz amiti (sunrise) and shkiah amiti (sunset) based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya.

ZENITH_16_POINT_9
protected static final double ZENITH_16_POINT_9
The zenith of 16.9° below geometric zenith (90°). This calculation is used for determining alos (dawn) based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. It is based on the calculation that the time between dawn and netz amiti (sunrise) is 72 minutes, the time that is takes to walk 4 mil at 18 minutes a mil (Rambam and others). The sun's position at 72 minutes beforenetz amiti(sunrise)
in Jerusalem on the equinox is 16.9° belowgeometric zenith
. See Also:
getAlosBaalHatanya()
, Constant Field Values

ZENITH_6_DEGREES
protected static final double ZENITH_6_DEGREES
The zenith of 6° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 24 minutes aftersunset
in Jerusalem on March 16, about 4 days before the equinox, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes, which is 6° belowgeometric zenith
. See Also:
getTzaisBaalHatanya()
, Constant Field Values

ZENITH_6_POINT_45
protected static final double ZENITH_6_POINT_45
The zenith of 6.45° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This is based on the calculations of Rabbi Yechiel Michel Tucazinsky of the position of the sun no later than31 minutes
after sunset in Jerusalem, and at the height of the summer solstice, this zman is 28 minutes aftershkiah. This computes to 6.45° belowgeometric zenith
.

ZENITH_7_POINT_65
protected static final double ZENITH_7_POINT_65
The zenith of 7.65° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions.

ZENITH_7_POINT_67
protected static final double ZENITH_7_POINT_67
The zenith of 7.67° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais according to some opinions.

ZENITH_9_POINT_3
protected static final double ZENITH_9_POINT_3
The zenith of 9.3° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions.

ZENITH_9_POINT_5
protected static final double ZENITH_9_POINT_5
The zenith of 9.5° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions.

ZENITH_9_POINT_75
protected static final double ZENITH_9_POINT_75
The zenith of 9.75° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating alos (dawn) and tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions.

ateretTorahSunsetOffset
private double ateretTorahSunsetOffset
The offset in minutes (defaults to 40) after sunset used for tzeit for Ateret Torah calculations.


Constructor Detail

ComplexZmanimCalendar
public ComplexZmanimCalendar(GeoLocation location)

ComplexZmanimCalendar
public ComplexZmanimCalendar()
Default constructor will set a defaultGeoLocation()
, a defaultAstronomicalCalculator
and default the calendar to the current date. See Also:
AstronomicalCalendar()


Method Detail

getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees
public long getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a 19.8° dip. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is when the sun is 19.8° below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. Dusk for this is when the sun is 19.8° below the western geometric horizon after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis18Degrees
public long getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a 18° dip. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is when the sun is 18° below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. Dusk for this is when the sun is 18° below the western geometric horizon after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis26Degrees
public long getShaahZmanis26Degrees()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 26°. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is when the sun is26°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. Dusk for this is when the sun is26°
below the western geometric horizon after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees
public long getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 16.1°. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is when the sun is 16.1° below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise and dusk is when the sun is 16.1° below the western geometric horizon after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos16Point1Degrees()
,getTzais16Point1Degrees()
,getSofZmanShmaMGA16Point1Degrees()
,getSofZmanTfilaMGA16Point1Degrees()
,getMinchaGedola16Point1Degrees()
,getMinchaKetana16Point1Degrees()
,getPlagHamincha16Point1Degrees()

getShaahZmanis60Minutes
public long getShaahZmanis60Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (solar hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA). This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 60 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 60 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Alternate methods of calculating a shaah zmanis are available in the subclassComplexZmanimCalendar
 Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis72Minutes
public long getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (solar hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA). This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 72 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 72 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Alternate methods of calculating a shaah zmanis are available in the subclassComplexZmanimCalendar
 Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis
public long getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 72 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise and dusk is 72 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. This is identical to 1/10th of the day fromsunrise
tosunset
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos72Zmanis()
,getTzais72Zmanis()

getShaahZmanis90Minutes
public long getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 90 minutes. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 90 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 90 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis
public long getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 90 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise and dusk is 90 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. This is identical to 1/8th of the day fromsunrise
tosunset
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos90Zmanis()
,getTzais90Zmanis()

getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis
public long getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 96 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise and dusk is 96 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. This is identical to 1/7.5th of the day fromsunrise
tosunset
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos96Zmanis()
,getTzais96Zmanis()

getShaahZmanisAteretTorah
public long getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah calculated with alos being 1/10th of sunrise to sunset day, or72
minutes zmaniyos of such a day beforesunrise
, and tzais is usually calculated as40 minutes
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) aftersunset
. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Note that with this system, chatzos (midday) will not be the point that the sun ishalfway across the sky
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos72Zmanis()
,getTzaisAteretTorah()
,getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()
,setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)

getShaahZmanis96Minutes
public long getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 96 minutes. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 96 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 96 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis120Minutes
public long getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 120 minutes. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 120 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 120 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis120MinutesZmanis
public long getShaahZmanis120MinutesZmanis()
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 120 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise and dusk is 120 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. This is identical to 1/6th of the day fromsunrise
tosunset
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos120Zmanis()
,getTzais120Zmanis()

getPlagHamincha120MinutesZmanis
public Date getPlagHamincha120MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on sunrise being 120 minutes zmaniyos or 1/6th of the day before sunrise. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis120MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis120MinutesZmanis()

getPlagHamincha120Minutes
public Date getPlagHamincha120Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 120 minutes before sunrise and ending 120 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn 120 minutes
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
aftergetAlos120()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis120Minutes()

getAlos60
public Date getAlos60()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated as 60 minutes before sunrise. This is the time to walk the distance of 4 Mil at 15 minutes a Mil. This seems to be the opinion of the Chavas Yair in the Mekor Chaim, Orach Chaim Ch. 90, though the Mekor chaim in Ch. 58 and in the Chut Hashani Cha 97 states that a a person walks 3 and a 1/3 mil in an hour, or an 18 minute mil. Also see the Divrei Malkiel Vol. 4, Ch. 20, page 34) who mentions the 15 minute mil lechumra by baking matzos. Also see the Maharik Ch. 173 where the questioner quoting the Ra'avan is of the opinion that the time to walk a mil is 15 minutes (5 mil in a little over an hour). There are many who believe that there is a ta'us sofer (scribe's error) in the Ra'avan, and it should 4 mil in a little over an hour, or an 18 minute mil. Time based offset calculations are based on the opinion of the Rishonim who stated that the time of the neshef (time between dawn and sunrise) does not vary by the time of year or location but purely depends on the time it takes to walk the distance of 4* mil.getTzaisGeonim9Point75Degrees()
is a related zman that is a degree based calculation based on 60 minutes. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getTzaisGeonim9Point75Degrees()
 To Do:
 Apply documentation to Tzais once reviewed.

getAlos72Zmanis
public Date getAlos72Zmanis()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 72 minutes zmaniyos or 1/10th of the day before sunrise. This is based on an 18 minute Mil so the time for 4 Mil is 72 minutes which is 1/10th of a day (12 * 60 = 720) based on the a day being fromsea level sunrise
tosea level sunset
orsunrise
tosunset
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). The actual calculation isAstronomicalCalendar.getSeaLevelSunrise()
 (ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
* 1.2). This calculation is used in the calendars published by Hisachdus Harabanim D'Artzos Habris Ve'Canada Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()

getAlos96
public Date getAlos96()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 96 minutes before beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting) that is based on the time to walk the distance of 4 Mil at 24 minutes a Mil. Time based offset calculations for alos are based on the opinion of the Rishonim who stated that the time of the Neshef (time between dawn and sunrise) does not vary by the time of year or location but purely depends on the time it takes to walk the distance of 4 Mil. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getAlos90Zmanis
public Date getAlos90Zmanis()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 90 minutes zmaniyos or 1/8th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). This is based on a 22.5 minute Mil so the time for 4 Mil is 90 minutes which is 1/8th of a day (12 * 60) / 8 = 90 The day is calculated fromsea level sunrise
tosea level sunset
orsunrise
tosunset
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
. The actual calculation used isAstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
 (ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
* 1.5). Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()

getAlos96Zmanis
public Date getAlos96Zmanis()
This method returns alos (dawn) calculated using 96 minutes zmaniyos or 1/7.5th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). This is based on a 24 minute Mil so the time for 4 Mil is 96 minutes which is 1/7.5th of a day (12 * 60 / 7.5 = 96). The day is calculated fromsea level sunrise
tosea level sunset
orsunrise
tosunset
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
. The actual calculation used isAstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
 (ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
* 1.6). Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()

getAlos90
public Date getAlos90()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 90 minutes beforesea level sunrise
based on the time to walk the distance of 4 Mil at 22.5 minutes a Mil. Time based offset calculations for alos are based on the opinion of the Rishonim who stated that the time of the Neshef (time between dawn and sunrise) does not vary by the time of year or location but purely depends on the time it takes to walk the distance of 4 Mil. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getAlos120
public Date getAlos120()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 120 minutes beforesea level sunrise
(no adjustment for elevation is made) based on the time to walk the distance of 5 Mil( Ula) at 24 minutes a Mil. Time based offset calculations for alos are based on the opinion of the Rishonim who stated that the time of the Neshef (time between dawn and sunrise) does not vary by the time of year or location but purely depends on the time it takes to walk the distance of 5 Mil(Ula). Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getAlos120Zmanis
public Date getAlos120Zmanis()
This method returns alos (dawn) calculated using 120 minutes zmaniyos or 1/6th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). This is based on a 24 minute Mil so the time for 5 Mil is 120 minutes which is 1/6th of a day (12 * 60 / 6 = 120). The day is calculated fromsea level sunrise
tosea level sunset
orsunrise
tosunset
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
. The actual calculation used isAstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
 (ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
* 2). Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()

getAlos26Degrees
public Date getAlos26Degrees()
A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is26°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. This calculation is based on the same calculation of120 minutes
but uses a degree based calculation instead of 120 exact minutes. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 120 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem during the equinox which calculates to 26° belowgeometric zenith
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_26_DEGREES
,getAlos120()
,getTzais120()

getAlos18Degrees
public Date getAlos18Degrees()
A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is18°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
AstronomicalCalendar.ASTRONOMICAL_ZENITH

getAlos19Degrees
public Date getAlos19Degrees()
A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is19°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. This is the Rambam's alos according to Rabbi Moshe Kosower's Maaglei Tzedek, page 88, Ayeles Hashachar Vol. I, page 12, Yom Valayla Shel Torah, Ch. 34, p. 222 and Rabbi Yaakov Shakow's Luach Ikvei Hayom. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
AstronomicalCalendar.ASTRONOMICAL_ZENITH

getAlos19Point8Degrees
public Date getAlos19Point8Degrees()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is19.8°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. This calculation is based on the same calculation of90 minutes
but uses a degree based calculation instead of 90 exact minutes. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 90 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem during the equinox which calculates to 19.8° belowgeometric zenith
 Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_19_POINT_8
,getAlos90()

getAlos16Point1Degrees
public Date getAlos16Point1Degrees()
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is16.1°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. This calculation is based on the same calculation of72 minutes
but uses a degree based calculation instead of 72 exact minutes. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 72 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem during the equinox which calculates to 16.1° belowgeometric zenith
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.ZENITH_16_POINT_1
,ZmanimCalendar.getAlos72()

getMisheyakir11Point5Degrees
public Date getMisheyakir11Point5Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is11.5°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 52 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem during the equinox which calculates to 11.5° belowgeometric zenith
 Returns:
 the
Date
of misheyakir. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_11_POINT_5

getMisheyakir11Degrees
public Date getMisheyakir11Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is11°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 48 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem during the equinox which calculates to 11° belowgeometric zenith
 Returns:
 If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic
Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for
this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of the
AstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_11_DEGREES

getMisheyakir10Point2Degrees
public Date getMisheyakir10Point2Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is10.2°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 45 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem during the equinox which calculates to 10.2° belowgeometric zenith
 Returns:
 the
Date
of misheyakir. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_10_POINT_2

getMisheyakir7Point65Degrees
public Date getMisheyakir7Point65Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is7.65°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). The degrees are based on a 35/36 minute zman during the equinox when the neshef (twilight) is the shortest. This time is based on Rabbi Moshe Feinstein who writes in Ohr Hachaim Vol. 4, Ch. 6) that misheyakir in New York is 3540 minutes before sunset, something that is a drop less than 8°. Rabbi Yisroel Taplin in Zmanei Yisrael (page 117) notes that Rabbi Yaakov Kamenetsky stated that it is not less than 36 minutes before sunrise (maybe it is 40 minutes). Sefer Yisrael Vehazmanim (p. 7) quotes the Tamar Yifrach in the name of the Satmar Rov that one should be stringent not consider misheyakir before 36 minutes. This is also the accepted minhag in Lakewood that is used in the Yeshiva. This follows the opinion of Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who provided the time of 35/36 minutes, but did not provide a degree based time. Since this zman depends on the level of light, Rabbi Yaakov Shakow presented this degree based calculations to Rabbi Kamenetsky who agreed to them. Returns:
 the
Date
of misheyakir. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_7_POINT_65
,getMisheyakir9Point5Degrees()

getMisheyakir9Point5Degrees
public Date getMisheyakir9Point5Degrees()
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is9.5°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is based on Rabbi Dovid Kronglass's Calculation of 45 minutes in Baltimore as mentioned in Divrei Chachamim No. 24 brought down by the Birur Halacha, Tinyana, Ch. 18. This calculates to 9.5°. Also see Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchok Neiman in Kovetz Eitz Chaim Vol. 9, p. 202 that the the Vyaan Yosef did not want to rely on times earlier than 45 minutes in New York. This zman is also used in the calendars published by Rabbi Hershel Edelstein. As mentioned in the Yisroel Vehazmanim, Rabbi Edelstein who was given the 45 minute zman by Rabbi Bick. The calendars published by the Edot Hamizrach communities also use this zman. This also follows the opinion of Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who provided the time of 36 and 45 minutes, but did not provide a degree based time. Since this zman depends on the level of light, Rabbi Yaakov Shakow presented these degree based times to Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who agreed to them. Returns:
 the
Date
of misheyakir. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_9_POINT_5
,getMisheyakir7Point65Degrees()

getSofZmanShmaMGA19Point8Degrees
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA19Point8Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being19.8°
beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 19.8° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
,getAlos19Point8Degrees()

getSofZmanShmaMGA16Point1Degrees
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 16.1° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
,getAlos16Point1Degrees()

getSofZmanShmaMGA18Degrees
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA18Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being18°
beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 18° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
,getAlos18Degrees()

getSofZmanShmaMGA72Minutes
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA72Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afterdawn
. This class returns an identical time toZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShmaMGA()
and is repeated here for clarity. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
,ZmanimCalendar.getAlos72()
,ZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShmaMGA()

getSofZmanShmaMGA72MinutesZmanis
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA72MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day beforesea level sunrise
tonightfall
of 72 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
,getAlos72Zmanis()

getSofZmanShmaMGA90Minutes
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA90Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 90 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 90 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
,getAlos90()

getSofZmanShmaMGA90MinutesZmanis
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA90MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 90 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 90 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
,getAlos90Zmanis()

getSofZmanShmaMGA96Minutes
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA96Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 96 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 96 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
,getAlos96()

getSofZmanShmaMGA96MinutesZmanis
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA96MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 96 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 96 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
,getAlos96Zmanis()

getSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos
public Date getSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) calculated as 3 hours (regular and not zmaniyos) beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. This is the opinion of the Shach in the Nekudas Hakesef (Yora Deah 184), Shevus Yaakov, Chasan Sofer and others. This returns the time of 3 hours beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
,getSofZmanTfila2HoursBeforeChatzos()
 To Do:
 Add hyperlinks to documentation

getSofZmanShmaMGA120Minutes
public Date getSofZmanShmaMGA120Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes or 1/6th of the day beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 120 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 120 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
,getAlos120()

getSofZmanShmaAlos16Point1ToSunset
public Date getSofZmanShmaAlos16Point1ToSunset()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends atsea level sunset
. 3 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 3 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion that the day is calculated from aalos 16.1°
tosea level sunset
. Note: Based on this calculation chatzos will not be at midday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this day. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos16Point1Degrees()
,AstronomicalCalendar.getSeaLevelSunset()

getSofZmanShmaAlos16Point1ToTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees
public Date getSofZmanShmaAlos16Point1ToTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais 7.083°
. 3 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 3 shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) afteralos 16.1°
based on the opinion that the day is calculated from aalos 16.1°
totzais 7.083°
. Note: Based on this calculation chatzos will not be at midday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos16Point1Degrees()
,getTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()

getSofZmanShmaKolEliyahu
@Deprecated public Date getSofZmanShmaKolEliyahu()
Deprecated.As per a conversation Rabbi Yisroel Twerski had with Rabbi Harfenes, this zman published in the Yisrael Vehazmanim was based on a misunderstanding and should not be used. This deprecated will be removed pending confirmation from Rabbi Harfenes.From the GRA in Kol Eliyahu on Berachos #173 that states that zman krias shema is calculated as half the time fromsea level sunrise
tofixed local chatzos
. The GRA himself seems to contradict this when he stated that zman krias shema is 1/4 of the day from sunrise to sunset. See Sarah Lamoed #25 in Yisroel Vehazmanim Vol. III page 1016. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getFixedLocalChatzos()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA19Point8Degrees
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA19Point8Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being19.8°
beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 19.8° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
,getAlos19Point8Degrees()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA16Point1Degrees
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 16.1° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
,getAlos16Point1Degrees()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA18Degrees
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA18Degrees()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being18°
beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 18° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
,getAlos18Degrees()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA72Minutes
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA72Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afterdawn
. This class returns an identical time toZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanTfilaMGA()
and is repeated here for clarity. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfila. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
,ZmanimCalendar.getAlos72()
,ZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShmaMGA()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA72MinutesZmanis
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA72MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
,getAlos72Zmanis()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA90Minutes
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA90Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 90 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 90 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfila. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
,getAlos90()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA90MinutesZmanis
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA90MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 90 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 90 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
,getAlos90Zmanis()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA96Minutes
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA96Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 96 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 96 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfila. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
,getAlos96()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA96MinutesZmanis
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA96MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 96 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 96 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
,getAlos90Zmanis()

getSofZmanTfilaMGA120Minutes
public Date getSofZmanTfilaMGA120Minutes()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 120 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 120 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
,getAlos120()

getSofZmanTfila2HoursBeforeChatzos
public Date getSofZmanTfila2HoursBeforeChatzos()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) calculated as 2 hours beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. This is based on the opinions that calculate sof zman krias shema asgetSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos()
. This returns the time of 2 hours beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
,getSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos()

getMinchaGedola30Minutes
public Date getMinchaGedola30Minutes()
This method returns mincha gedola calculated as 30 minutes afterchatzos
and not 1/2 of ashaah zmanis
afterchatzos
as calculated byZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola(java.util.Date, java.util.Date)
. Some use this time to delay the start of mincha in the winter when 1/2 of ashaah zmanis
is less than 30 minutes. SeegetMinchaGedolaGreaterThan30()
for a convenience method that returns the later of the 2 calculations. One should not use this time to start mincha before the standardmincha gedola
. See Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim Siman Raish Lamed Gimel seif alef and the Shaar Hatziyon seif katan ches. Returns:
 the
Date
of 30 minutes after chatzos. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
,getMinchaGedolaGreaterThan30()
 To Do:
 Add hyperlinks to documentation.

getMinchaGedola72Minutes
public Date getMinchaGedola72Minutes()
This method returns the time of mincha gedola according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset. This is the earliest time to pray mincha. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 6.5solar hours
after alos. The calculation used is 6.5 *getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getAlos72()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaKetana()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()

getMinchaGedola16Point1Degrees
public Date getMinchaGedola16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the time of mincha gedola according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon. This is the earliest time to pray mincha. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 6.5solar hours
after alos. The calculation used is 6.5 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaKetana()

getMinchaGedolaGreaterThan30
public Date getMinchaGedolaGreaterThan30()
This is a convenience method that returns the later ofZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
. In the winter when ashaah zmanis
is less than 30 minutesgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
will be returned, otherwiseZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the later ofZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getMinchaKetana16Point1Degrees
public Date getMinchaKetana16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the time of mincha ketana according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon. This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 9.5solar hours
after alos. The calculation used is 9.5 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaKetana()

getMinchaKetana72Minutes
public Date getMinchaKetana72Minutes()
This method returns the time of mincha ketana according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset. This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 9.5getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
after alos. The calculation used is 9.5 *getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaKetana()

getPlagHamincha60Minutes
public Date getPlagHamincha60Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 60 minutes before sunrise and ending 60 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis60Minutes()
aftergetAlos60()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis60Minutes()

getPlagHamincha72Minutes
public Date getPlagHamincha72Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afterZmanimCalendar.getAlos72()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis72Minutes()

getPlagHamincha90Minutes
public Date getPlagHamincha90Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 90 minutes before sunrise and ending 90 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
aftergetAlos90()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis90Minutes()

getPlagHamincha96Minutes
public Date getPlagHamincha96Minutes()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 96 minutes before sunrise and ending 96 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
aftergetAlos96()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis96Minutes()

getPlagHamincha96MinutesZmanis
public Date getPlagHamincha96MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getPlagHamincha90MinutesZmanis
public Date getPlagHamincha90MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getPlagHamincha72MinutesZmanis
public Date getPlagHamincha72MinutesZmanis()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getPlagHamincha16Point1Degrees
public Date getPlagHamincha16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais 16.1°
. This is calculated as 10.75 hours zmaniyos afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
aftergetAlos16Point1Degrees()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()

getPlagHamincha19Point8Degrees
public Date getPlagHamincha19Point8Degrees()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 19.8°
and ends attzais 19.8°
. This is calculated as 10.75 hours zmaniyos afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
aftergetAlos19Point8Degrees()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()

getPlagHamincha26Degrees
public Date getPlagHamincha26Degrees()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 26°
and ends attzais 26°
. This is calculated as 10.75 hours zmaniyos afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis26Degrees()
aftergetAlos26Degrees()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis26Degrees()

getPlagHamincha18Degrees
public Date getPlagHamincha18Degrees()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 18°
and ends attzais 18°
. This is calculated as 10.75 hours zmaniyos afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
aftergetAlos18Degrees()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis18Degrees()

getPlagAlosToSunset
public Date getPlagAlosToSunset()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends atsunset
. 10.75 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 10.75 shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion that the day is calculated from adawn
of 16.1 degrees before sunrise tosea level sunset
. This returns the time of 10.75 * the calculated shaah zmanis afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the plag. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos16Point1Degrees()
,AstronomicalCalendar.getSeaLevelSunset()

getPlagAlos16Point1ToTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees
public Date getPlagAlos16Point1ToTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais
. 10.75 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 10.75 shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion that the day is calculated from adawn
of 16.1 degrees before sunrise totzais
. This returns the time of 10.75 * the calculated shaah zmanis afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the plag. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos16Point1Degrees()
,getTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()

getBainHasmashosRT13Point24Degrees
public Date getBainHasmashosRT13Point24Degrees()
Method to return Bain Hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated when the sun is13.24°
below the westerngeometric horizon
(90°) after sunset. This calculation is based on the same calculation ofBain Hashmashos Rabbeinu Tam 58.5 minutes
but uses a degree based calculation instead of 58.5 exact minutes. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 58.5 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem during the equinox which calculates to 13.24° belowgeometric zenith
. NOTE: As per Yisrael Vehazmanim Vol. III page 1028 No 50, a dip of slightly less than 13° should be used. Calculations show that the proper dip to be 13.2456° (truncated to 13.24 that provides about 1.5 second earlier (lechumra) time) below the horizon at that time. This makes a difference of 1 minute and 10 seconds in Jerusalem during the Equinox, and 1 minute 29 seconds during the solstice as compared to the proper 13.24° versus 13°. For NY during the solstice, the difference is 1 minute 56 seconds. Returns:
 the
Date
of the sun being 13.24° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_13_POINT_24
,getBainHasmashosRT58Point5Minutes()

getBainHasmashosRT58Point5Minutes
public Date getBainHasmashosRT58Point5Minutes()
This method returns Bain Hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated as a 58.5 minute offset after sunset. Bain hashmashos is 3/4 of a Mil before tzais or 3 1/4 Mil after sunset. With a Mil calculated as 18 minutes, 3.25 * 18 = 58.5 minutes. Returns:
 the
Date
of 58.5 minutes after sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getBainHasmashosRT13Point5MinutesBefore7Point083Degrees
public Date getBainHasmashosRT13Point5MinutesBefore7Point083Degrees()
This method returns the time of bain hashmashos based on the calculation of 13.5 minutes (3/4 of an 18 minute Mil before shkiah calculated as7.083°
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam in this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()

getBainHasmashosRT2Stars
public Date getBainHasmashosRT2Stars()
This method returns bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated according to the opinion of the Divrei Yosef (see Yisrael Vehazmanim) calculated 5/18th (27.77%) of the time between alos (calculated as 19.8° before sunrise) and sunrise. This is added to sunset to arrive at the time for bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam). Returns:
 the
Date
of bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam for this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getTzaisGeonim3Point7Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim3Point7Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at3.7°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 3.7° below sea level.  See Also:
ZENITH_3_POINT_7

getTzaisGeonim3Point8Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim3Point8Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at3.8°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 3.8° below sea level.  See Also:
ZENITH_3_POINT_8

getTzaisGeonim5Point95Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim5Point95Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at5.95°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 5.95° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_5_POINT_95

getTzaisGeonim3Point65Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim3Point65Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil based on an 18 minute Mil, or 13.5 minutes. It is the sun's position at3.65°
below the western horizon. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 3.65° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_3_POINT_65

getTzaisGeonim3Point676Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim3Point676Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil based on an 18 minute Mil, or 13.5 minutes. It is the sun's position at3.676°
below the western horizon based on the calculations of Stanley Fishkind. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 3.676° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_3_POINT_676

getTzaisGeonim4Point61Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim4Point61Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil based on a 24 minute Mil, or 18 minutes. It is the sun's position at4.61°
below the western horizon. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 4.61° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_4_POINT_61

getTzaisGeonim4Point37Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim4Point37Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil, based on a 22.5 minute Mil, or 16 7/8 minutes. It is the sun's position at4.37°
below the western horizon. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 4.37° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_4_POINT_37

getTzaisGeonim5Point88Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim5Point88Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a 24 minute Mil, based on a Mil being 24 minutes, and is calculated as 18 + 2 + 4 for a total of 24 minutes. It is the sun's position at5.88°
below the western horizon. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 5.88° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_5_POINT_88
 To Do:
 Additional detailed documentation needed.

getTzaisGeonim4Point8Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim4Point8Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a Mil based on the sun's position at4.8°
below the western horizon. This is based on Rabbi Leo Levi's calculations. This is the This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 4.8° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_4_POINT_8
 To Do:
 Additional documentation needed.

getTzaisGeonim6Point45Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim6Point45Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim as calculated by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Tucazinsky. It is based on of the position of the sun no later than31 minutes
after sunset in Jerusalem, and at the height of the summer solstice, this zman is 28 minutes after shkiah. This computes to 6.45° below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 6.45° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_6_POINT_45
 To Do:
 Additional documentation details needed.

getTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 30 minutes after sunset during the equinox in Yerushalayim. The sun's position at this time computes to7.083° (or 7° 5â€²
below the western horizon. Note that this is a common and rounded number. Computation shows the accurate number is 7.2° Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 7.083° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_7_POINT_083

getTzaisGeonim7Point67Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim7Point67Degrees()
This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 45 minutes after sunset during the summer solstice in New York, when the neshef (twilight) is the longest. The sun's position at this time computes to7.75°
below the western horizon. See Igros Moshe Even Haezer 4, Ch. 4 (regarding tzais for krias Shema). It is also mentioned in Rabbi Heber's Shaarei Zmanim on in chapter 10 (page 87) and chapter 12 (page 108). Also see the time of 45 minutes in Rabbi Simcha Bunim Cohen's The radiance of Shabbos as the earliest zman for New York. This zman is also listed in the Divrei Shalom Vol. III, chapter 75, and Bais Av"i Vol. III, chapter 117. This zman is also listed in the Divrei Shalom etc. chapter 177. Since this zman depends on the level of light, Rabbi Yaakov Shakow presented this degree based calculation to Rabbi Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who agreed to it. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 7.67° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_7_POINT_67
 To Do:
 add hyperlinks to source of Divrei Shalom.

getTzaisGeonim8Point5Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim8Point5Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at8.5°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 8.5° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.ZENITH_8_POINT_5

getTzaisGeonim9Point3Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim9Point3Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the calculations used in the Luach Itim Lebinah as the stringent time for tzais. It is calculated at the sun's position at9.3°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 9.3° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getTzaisGeonim9Point75Degrees
public Date getTzaisGeonim9Point75Degrees()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 60 minutes after sunset during the equinox in New York. The sun's position at this time computes to9.75°
below the western horizon. This is the opinion of Rabbi Eliyahu Henkin. This also follows the opinion of Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky. Rabbi Yaakov Shakow presented these degree based times to Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who agreed to them. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 9.75° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getTzais60()

getTzais60
public Date getTzais60()
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Chavas Yair and Divrei Malkiel that the time to walk the distance of a Mil is 15 minutes for a total of 60 minutes for 4 Mil aftersea level sunset
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing 60 minutes after sea level sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos60()

getTzaisAteretTorah
public Date getTzaisAteretTorah()
This method returns tzais usually calculated as 40 minutes (configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) after sunset. Please note that Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah who uses this time, does so only for calculating various other zmanai hayom such as Sof Zman Krias Shema and Plag Hamincha. His calendars do not publish a zman for Tzais. It should also be noted that Chacham HarariRaful provided a 25 minute zman for Israel. This API uses 40 minutes year round in any place on the globe by default. This offset can be changed by callingsetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing 40 minutes (configurable viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) after sea level sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()
,setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)

getAteretTorahSunsetOffset
public double getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()
Returns the offset in minutes after sunset used to calculate sunset for the Ateret Torah zmanim. The default value is 40 minutes. This affects most zmanim, since almost all zmanim use subset as part of their calculation. Returns:
 the number of minutes after sunset for Tzait.
 See Also:
setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)

setAteretTorahSunsetOffset
public void setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double ateretTorahSunsetOffset)
Allows setting the offset in minutes after sunset for the Ateret Torah zmanim. The default if unset is 40 minutes. Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah uses 40 minutes globally with the exception of Israel where a 25 minute offset is used. This 40 minute (or any other) offset can be overridden by this method. This offset impacts all Ateret Torah zmanim. Parameters:
ateretTorahSunsetOffset
 the number of minutes after sunset to use as an offset for the Ateret Torah tzais See Also:
getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()

getSofZmanShmaAteretTorah
public Date getSofZmanShmaAteretTorah()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afteralos 72 zmaniyos
. Note: Based on this calculation chatzos will not be at midday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos72Zmanis()
,getTzaisAteretTorah()
,getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()
,setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
,getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()

getSofZmanTfilahAteretTorah
public Date getSofZmanTfilahAteretTorah()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 4 *shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afteralos 72 zmaniyos
. Note: Based on this calculation chatzos will not be at midday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos72Zmanis()
,getTzaisAteretTorah()
,getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
,setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)

getMinchaGedolaAteretTorah
public Date getMinchaGedolaAteretTorah()
This method returns the time of mincha gedola based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 6.5solar hours
after alos. The calculation used is 6.5 *getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos72Zmanis()
,getTzaisAteretTorah()
,getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
,getMinchaKetanaAteretTorah()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
,getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()
,setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)

getMinchaKetanaAteretTorah
public Date getMinchaKetanaAteretTorah()
This method returns the time of mincha ketana based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 9.5solar hours
afteralos
. The calculation used is 9.5 *getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos72Zmanis()
,getTzaisAteretTorah()
,getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
,getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()
,setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
,ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaKetana()

getPlagHaminchaAteretTorah
public Date getPlagHaminchaAteretTorah()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 10.75shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the plag. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos72Zmanis()
,getTzaisAteretTorah()
,getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
,setAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
,getAteretTorahSunsetOffset()

getTzais72Zmanis
public Date getTzais72Zmanis()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 72 minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day aftersea level sunset
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos72Zmanis()

getTzais90Zmanis
public Date getTzais90Zmanis()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 90 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos90Zmanis()

getTzais96Zmanis
public Date getTzais96Zmanis()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 96 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos96Zmanis()

getTzais90
public Date getTzais90()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 90 minutes after sea level sunset. This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham that the time to walk the distance of a Mil according to the Rambam's opinion is 18 minutes for a total of 90 minutes based on the opinion of Ula who calculated tzais as 5 Mil after sea level shkiah (sunset). A similar calculationgetTzais19Point8Degrees()
uses solar position calculations based on this time. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getTzais19Point8Degrees()
,getAlos90()

getTzais120
public Date getTzais120()
This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham that the time to walk the distance of a Mil according to the Rambam's opinion is 2/5 of an hour (24 minutes) for a total of 120 minutes based on the opinion of Ula who calculated tzais as 5 Mil after sea level shkiah (sunset). A similar calculationgetTzais26Degrees()
uses temporal calculations based on this time. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getTzais26Degrees()
,getAlos120()

getTzais120Zmanis
public Date getTzais120Zmanis()
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 120 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos120Zmanis()

getTzais16Point1Degrees
public Date getTzais16Point1Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos16Point1Degrees()
 Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getTzais72()
,for more information on this calculation.

getTzais26Degrees
public Date getTzais26Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos26Degrees()
 Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getTzais120()
,getAlos26Degrees()

getTzais18Degrees
public Date getTzais18Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos18Degrees()
 Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos18Degrees()

getTzais19Point8Degrees
public Date getTzais19Point8Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos19Point8Degrees()
 Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getTzais90()
,getAlos19Point8Degrees()

getTzais96
public Date getTzais96()
A method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 96 minutes after sea level sunset. For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos96()
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getAlos96()

getFixedLocalChatzos
public Date getFixedLocalChatzos()
A method that returns the local time for fixed chatzos. This time is noon and midnight adjusted from standard time to account for the local latitude. The 360° of the globe divided by 24 calculates to 15° per hour with 4 minutes per degree, so at a longitude of 0 , 15, 30 etc... Chatzos in 12:00 noon. Lakewood, N.J., whose longitude is 74.2094, is 0.7906 away from the closest multiple of 15 at 75°. This is multiplied by 4 to yield 3 minutes and 10 seconds for a chatzos of 11:56:50. This method is not tied to the theoretical 15° timezones, but will adjust to the actual timezone and Daylight saving time. Returns:
 the Date representing the local chatzos
 See Also:
GeoLocation.getLocalMeanTimeOffset()

getSofZmanShmaFixedLocal
public Date getSofZmanShmaFixedLocal()
A method that returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) calculated as 3 hours beforegetFixedLocalChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema calculated as 3 hours beforegetFixedLocalChatzos()
..  See Also:
getFixedLocalChatzos()
,getSofZmanTfilaFixedLocal()

getSofZmanTfilaFixedLocal
public Date getSofZmanTfilaFixedLocal()
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) calculated as 2 hours beforegetFixedLocalChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfila.  See Also:
getFixedLocalChatzos()
,getSofZmanShmaFixedLocal()

getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos
public Date getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos(Date alos, Date tzais)
Returns the latest time of Kidush Levana according to the Maharil's opinion that it is calculated as halfway between molad and molad. This adds half the 29 days, 12 hours and 793 chalakim time between molad and molad (14 days, 18 hours, 22 minutes and 666 milliseconds) to the month's molad. If the time of sof zman Kiddush Levana occurs during the day (between the alos and tzais passed in as parameters), it returns the alos passed in. If a null alos or tzais are passed to this method, the nondaytime adjusted time will be returned. This method is available in the current release of the API but may change or be removed in the future since it depends on the still changingJewishCalendar
and related classes. Parameters:
alos
 the beginning of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be alos. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made.tzais
 the end of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be alos. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment halfway between molad and molad. If the time occurs between alos and tzais, alos will be returned
 See Also:
getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos()
,getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days(Date, Date)
,JewishCalendar.getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos()

getMoladBasedTime
private Date getMoladBasedTime(Date moladBasedTime, Date alos, Date tzais, boolean techila)
Returns the Date of the molad based time if it occurs on the current date.Since Kiddush Levana can only be said during the day, there are parameters to limit it to between alos and tzais. If the time occurs between alos and tzais, tzais will be returned Parameters:
moladBasedTime
 the molad based time such as molad, tchilas and sof zman Kiddush Levanaalos
 optional start of day to limit molad times to the end of the night before or beginning of the next night. Ignored if either this or tzais are null.tzais
 optional end of day to limit molad times to the end of the night before or beginning of the next night. Ignored if either this or alos are nulltechila
 is it the start of Kiddush Levana time or the end? If it is start roll it to the next tzais, and and if it is the end, return the end of the previous night (alos passed in). Ignored if either alos or tzais are null. Returns:
 the molad based time. If the zman does not occur during the current date, null will be returned.

getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos
public Date getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos()
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana according to the Maharil's opinion that it is calculated as halfway between molad and molad. This adds half the 29 days, 12 hours and 793 chalakim time between molad and molad (14 days, 18 hours, 22 minutes and 666 milliseconds) to the month's molad. The sof zman Kiddush Levana will be returned even if it occurs during the day. To limit the time to between tzais and alos, seegetSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos(Date, Date)
. This method is available in the current release of the API but may change or be removed in the future since it depends on the still changingJewishCalendar
and related classes, and adds a dependency to the hebrewcalendar package. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment halfway between molad and molad. If the time occurs between alos and tzais, alos will be returned
 See Also:
getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos(Date, Date)
,getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days()
,JewishCalendar.getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos()

getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days
public Date getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days(Date alos, Date tzais)
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana calculated as 15 days after the molad. This is the opinion brought down in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 426). It should be noted that some opinions hold that the Rema who brings down the opinion of the Maharil's of calculatinghalf way between molad and mold
is of the opinion that Mechaber agrees to his opinion. Also see the Aruch Hashulchan. For additional details on the subject, See Rabbi Dovid Heber's very detailed writeup in Siman Daled (chapter 4) of Shaarei Zmanim. If the time of sof zman Kiddush Levana occurs during the day (between the alos and tzais passed in as parameters), it returns the alos passed in. If a null alos or tzais are passed to this method, the nondaytime adjusted time will be returned. This method is available in the current release of the API but may change or be removed in the future since it depends on the still changingJewishCalendar
and related classes. Parameters:
alos
 the beginning of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be alos. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made.tzais
 the end of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be alos. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 15 days after the molad. If the time occurs between alos and tzais, alos will be returned
 See Also:
getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos(Date, Date)
,JewishCalendar.getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days()
 To Do:
 Add hyperlinks to documentation.

getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days
public Date getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days()
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana calculated as 15 days after the molad. This is the opinion brought down in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 426). It should be noted that some opinions hold that the Rema who brings down the opinion of the Maharil's of calculatinghalf way between molad and mold
is of the opinion that Mechaber agrees to his opinion. Also see the Aruch Hashulchan. For additional details on the subject, See Rabbi Dovid Heber's very detailed writeup in Siman Daled (chapter 4) of Shaarei Zmanim. The sof zman Kiddush Levana will be returned even if it occurs during the day. To limit the time to between tzais and alos, seegetSofZmanKidushLevana15Days(Date, Date)
. This method is available in the current release of the API but may change or be removed in the future since it depends on the still changingJewishCalendar
and related classes. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 15 days after the molad. If the time occurs between alos and tzais, alos will be returned
 See Also:
getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days(Date, Date)
,getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos()
,JewishCalendar.getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days()

getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days
public Date getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days()
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to Rabbeinu Yonah's opinion that it can be said 3 days after the molad. The time will be returned even if it occurs during the day when Kiddush Levana can't be said. UsegetTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days(Date, Date)
if you want to limit the time to night hours. This method is available in the current release of the API but may change or be removed in the future since it depends on the still changingJewishCalendar
and related classes. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 3 days after the molad.
 See Also:
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days(Date, Date)
,getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days()
,JewishCalendar.getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days()

getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days
public Date getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days(Date alos, Date tzais)
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to Rabbeinu Yonah's opinion that it can be said 3 days after the molad. If the time of tchilas zman Kiddush Levana occurs during the day (between alos and tzais passed to this method) it will return the following tzais. If null is passed for either alos or tzais, the actual tchilas zman Kiddush Levana will be returned, regardless of if it is during the day or not. This method is available in the current release of the API but may change or be removed in the future since it depends on the still changingJewishCalendar
and related classes. Parameters:
alos
 the beginning of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be tzais. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made.tzais
 the end of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be tzais. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 3 days after the molad. If the time occurs between alos and tzais, tzais will be returned
 See Also:
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days()
,getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days(Date, Date)
,JewishCalendar.getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days()

getZmanMolad
public Date getZmanMolad()
Returns the the point in time of Molad as aDate
Object. For the traditional day of week, hour, minute and chalakim,JewishCalendar.getMoladAsDate()
and the not yet completedHebrewDateFormatter
that will have formatting for this. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment of the molad. If the molad does not occur on this day, a null will be returned.
 See Also:
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days()
,getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days(Date, Date)
,JewishCalendar.getMoladAsDate()

getMidnightLastNight
private Date getMidnightLastNight()
Used by Molad based zmanim to determine if zmanim occur during the current day. Returns:
 previous midnight
 See Also:
getMoladBasedTime(Date, Date, Date, boolean)

getMidnightTonight
private Date getMidnightTonight()
Used by Molad based zmanim to determine if zmanim occur during the current day. Returns:
 following midnight
 See Also:
getMoladBasedTime(Date, Date, Date, boolean)

getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days
public Date getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days(Date alos, Date tzais)
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to the opinions that it should not be said until 7 days after the molad. If the time of tchilas zman Kiddush Levana occurs during the day (betweenAlos
andtzais
) it return the next tzais. This method is available in the current release of the API but may change or be removed in the future since it depends on the still changingJewishCalendar
and related classes. Parameters:
alos
 the beginning of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be tzais. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made.tzais
 the end of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be tzais. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 7 days after the molad. If the time occurs between alos and tzais, tzais will be returned
 See Also:
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days(Date, Date)
,getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days()
,JewishCalendar.getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days()

getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days
public Date getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days()
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to the opinions that it should not be said until 7 days after the molad. The time will be returned even if it occurs during the day when Kiddush Levana can't be said. UsegetTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days(Date, Date)
if you want to limit the time to night hours. This method is available in the current release of the API but may change or be removed in the future since it depends on the still changingJewishCalendar
and related classes. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 7 days after the molad regardless of it is day or night.
 See Also:
getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days(Date, Date)
,JewishCalendar.getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days()
,getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days()

getSofZmanAchilasChametzGRA
public Date getSofZmanAchilasChametzGRA()
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the GRA. This time is identical to theSof zman tfilah GRA
and is provided as a convenience method for those who are unaware how this zman is calculated. This time is 4 hours into the day based on the opinion of the GRA that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 4 *ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
aftersea level sunrise
. Returns:
 the
Date
one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
,ZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanTfilaGRA()

getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA72Minutes
public Date getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA72Minutes()
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is identical to theSof zman tfilah MGA 72 minutes
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisMGA()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time of eating chametz. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set), a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisMGA()
,ZmanimCalendar.getAlos72()
,getSofZmanTfilaMGA72Minutes()

getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA16Point1Degrees
public Date getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 16.1° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 4getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time of eating chametz. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
,getAlos16Point1Degrees()
,getSofZmanTfilaMGA16Point1Degrees()

getSofZmanBiurChametzGRA
public Date getSofZmanBiurChametzGRA()
This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the GRA This time is 5 hours into the day based on the opinion of the GRA that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 5 *ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
aftersea level sunrise
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()

getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA72Minutes
public Date getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA72Minutes()
This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 5shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 5 *ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisMGA()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set), a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisMGA()
,ZmanimCalendar.getAlos72()

getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA16Point1Degrees
public Date getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA16Point1Degrees()
This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
. This time is 5shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 16.1° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 5getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
,getAlos16Point1Degrees()

getSolarMidnight
public Date getSolarMidnight()
A method that returns "solar" midnight, or the time when the sun is at its nadir. Note: this method is experimental and might be removed. Returns:
 the
Date
of Solar Midnight (chatzos layla). If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getSunriseBaalHatanya
private Date getSunriseBaalHatanya()
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's netz amiti (sunrise) withoutelevation adjustment
. This forms the base for the Baal Hatanya's dawn based calculations that are calculated as a dip below the horizon before sunrise. According to the Baal Hatanya, netz amiti, or true (halachic) sunrise, is when the top of the sun's disk is visible at an elevation similar to the mountains of Eretz Yisrael. The time is calculated as the point at which the center of the sun's disk is 1.583° below the horizon. This degree based calculation can be found in Rabbi Shalom DovBer Levine's commentary on The Baal Hatanya's Seder Hachnasas Shabbos. From an elevation of 546 meters, the top of Har Hacarmel, the sun disappears when it is 1° 35' or 1.583° below the sea level horizon. This in turn is based on the Gemara Shabbos 35a. There are other opinions brought down by Rabbi Levine, including Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Feigelstock who calculates it as the degrees below the horizon 4 minutes after sunset in Yerushalaym (on the equinox). That is brought down as 1.583°. This is identical to the 1° 35' zman and is probably a typo and should be 1.683°. These calculations are used by most Chabad calendars that use the Baal Hatanya's Zmanim. See About Our Zmanim Calculations @ Chabad.org. Note: netz amiti is used only for calculating certain zmanim, and is intentionally unpublished. For practical purposes, daytime mitzvos like shofar and lulav should not be done until after the published time for netzsunrise. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the exact sealevel netz amiti (sunrise) time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of the page.  See Also:
AstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
,AstronomicalCalendar.getSeaLevelSunrise()
,getSunsetBaalHatanya()
,ZENITH_1_POINT_583

getSunsetBaalHatanya
private Date getSunsetBaalHatanya()
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's shkiah amiti (sunset) withoutelevation adjustment
. This forms the base for the Baal Hatanya's dusk based calculations that are calculated as a dip below the horizon after sunset. According to the Baal Hatanya, shkiah amiti, true (halachic) sunset, is when the top of the sun's disk disappears from view at an elevation similar to the mountains of Eretz Yisrael. This time is calculated as the point at which the center of the sun's disk is 1.583 degrees below the horizon. Note: shkiah amiti is used only for calculating certain zmanim, and is intentionally unpublished. For practical purposes, all daytime mitzvos should be completed before the published time for shkiahsunset. For further explanation of the calculations used for the Baal Hatanya's Zmanim in this library, see About Our Zmanim Calculations @ Chabad.org. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the exact sealevel shkiah amiti (sunset) time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of the theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
AstronomicalCalendar.getSunset()
,AstronomicalCalendar.getSeaLevelSunset()
,getSunriseBaalHatanya()
,ZENITH_1_POINT_583

getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya
public long getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's a shaah zmanis (temporal hour
). This forms the base for the Baal Hatanya's day based calculations that are calculated as a 1.583° dip below the horizon after sunset. According to the Baal Hatanya, shkiah amiti, true (halachic) sunset, is when the top of the sun's disk disappears from view at an elevation similar to the mountains of Eretz Yisrael. This time is calculated as the point at which the center of the sun's disk is 1.583 degrees below the horizon. A method that returns a shaah zmanis (temporal hour
) calculated based on the Baal Hatanya's netz amiti and shkiah amiti using a dip of 1.583° below the sea level horizon. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day runs fromnetz amiti
toshkiah amiti
. The calculations are based on a day fromsea level netz amiti
tosea level shkiah amiti
. The day is split into 12 equal parts with each one being a shaah zmanis. This method is similar toAstronomicalCalendar.getTemporalHour()
, but all calculations are based on a sea level sunrise and sunset. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis calculated fromnetz amiti(sunrise)
toshkiah amiti("real" sunset)
. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set,Long.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
AstronomicalCalendar.getTemporalHour(Date, Date)
,getSunriseBaalHatanya()
,getSunsetBaalHatanya()
,ZENITH_1_POINT_583
 To Do:
 Copy sunrise and sunset comments here as applicable.

getAlosBaalHatanya
public Date getAlosBaalHatanya()
Returns the Baal Hatanya's alos (dawn) calculated as the time when the sun is 16.9° below the easterngeometric horizon
beforesunrise
. For more information the source of 16.9° seeZENITH_16_POINT_9
. Returns:
 The
Date
of dawn. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_16_POINT_9

getSofZmanShmaBaalHatanya
public Date getSofZmanShmaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning). This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afternetz amiti(sunrise)
based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 3 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti(sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman shema according to the Baal Hatanya. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShma(Date, Date)
,getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()

getSofZmanTfilaBaalHatanya
public Date getSofZmanTfilaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the latest zman tfilah (time to recite the morning prayers). This time is 4 hours into the day based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 4 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti(sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfilah. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanTfila(Date, Date)
,getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()

getSofZmanAchilasChametzBaalHatanya
public Date getSofZmanAchilasChametzBaalHatanya()
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. This time is identical to theSof zman tfilah Baal Hatanya
. This time is 4 hours into the day based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 4 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti(sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
,getSofZmanTfilaBaalHatanya()

getSofZmanBiurChametzBaalHatanya
public Date getSofZmanBiurChametzBaalHatanya()
This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. This time is 5 hours into the day based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 5 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti(sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()

getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya
public Date getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the time of mincha gedola. Mincha gedola is the earliest time one can pray mincha. The Rambam is of the opinion that it is better to delay mincha untilmincha ketana
while the Ra"sh, Tur, GRA and others are of the opinion that mincha can be prayed lechatchila starting at mincha gedola. This is calculated as 6.5sea level solar hours
afternetz amiti(sunrise)
. This calculation is based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 6.5 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti("real" sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola(Date, Date)
,getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
,getMinchaKetanaBaalHatanya()

getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanyaGreaterThan30
public Date getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanyaGreaterThan30()
This is a convenience method that returns the later ofgetMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
. In the winter when ashaah zmanis
is less than 30 minutesgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
will be returned, otherwisegetMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the later ofgetMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getMinchaKetanaBaalHatanya
public Date getMinchaKetanaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the time of mincha ketana. This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha in the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 9.5sea level solar hours
afternetz amiti(sunrise)
. This calculation is calculated based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 9.5 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti(sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getMinchaKetana(Date, Date)
,getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
,getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()

getPlagHaminchaBaalHatanya
public Date getPlagHaminchaBaalHatanya()
This method returns the time of plag hamincha. This is calculated as 10.75 hours after sunrise. This calculation is based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 10.75 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti(sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZmanimCalendar.getPlagHamincha(Date, Date)

getTzaisBaalHatanya
public Date getTzaisBaalHatanya()
A method that returns tzais (nightfall) when the sun is 6° below the western geometric horizon (90°) aftersunset
. For information on the source of this calculation seeZENITH_6_DEGREES
. Returns:
 The
Date
of nightfall. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
ZENITH_6_DEGREES

