Class ComplexZmanimCalendar
 All Implemented Interfaces:
Cloneable
This class extends ZmanimCalendar and provides many more zmanim than available in the ZmanimCalendar. The basis
for most zmanim in this class are from the sefer Yisroel
Vehazmanim by Rabbi Yisrael Dovid Harfenes.
As an example of the number of different zmanim made available by this class, there are methods to return 18
different calculations for alos (dawn), 18 for plag hamincha and 29 for tzais available in this
API. The real power of this API is the ease in calculating zmanim that are not part of the library. The methods for
zmanim calculations not present in this class or it's superclass ZmanimCalendar
are contained in the
AstronomicalCalendar
, the base class of the calendars in our API since they are generic methods for calculating
time based on degrees or time before or after sunrise
and sunset
and are of interest
for calculation beyond zmanim calculations. Here are some examples.
First create the Calendar for the location you would like to calculate:
String locationName = "Lakewood, NJ";
double latitude = 40.0828; // Lakewood, NJ
double longitude = 74.222; // Lakewood, NJ
double elevation = 20; // optional elevation correction in Meters
// the String parameter in getTimeZone() has to be a valid timezone listed in
// TimeZone.getAvailableIDs()
TimeZone timeZone = TimeZone.getTimeZone("America/New_York");
GeoLocation location = new GeoLocation(locationName, latitude, longitude, elevation, timeZone);
ComplexZmanimCalendar czc = new ComplexZmanimCalendar(location);
// Optionally set the date or it will default to today's date
czc.getCalendar().set(Calendar.MONTH, Calendar.FEBRUARY);
czc.getCalendar().set(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH, 8);
Note: For locations such as Israel where the beginning and end of daylight savings time can fluctuate from
year to year, if your version of Java does not have an up to date timezone database, create a
SimpleTimeZone
with the known start and end of DST.
To get alos calculated as 14° below the horizon (as calculated in the calendars published in Montreal),
add AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
(90) to the 14° offset to get the desired time:
Date alos14 = czc.getSunriseOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ 14);
To get mincha gedola calculated based on the Magen Avraham (MGA) using a shaah zmanis based on the day starting 16.1° below the horizon (and ending 16.1° after sunset) the following calculation can be used:
Date minchaGedola = czc.getTimeOffset(czc.getAlos16point1Degrees(), czc.getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees() * 6.5);
or even simpler using the included convenience methods
Date minchaGedola = czc.getMinchaGedola(czc.getAlos16point1Degrees(), czc.getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees());
A little more complex example would be calculating zmanim that rely on a shaah zmanis that is
not present in this library. While a drop more complex, it is still rather easy. An example would be to calculate
the Trumas Hadeshen's alos to
tzais based plag hamincha as calculated in the Machzikei Hadass calendar in Manchester, England.
A number of this calendar's zmanim are calculated based on a day starting at alos of 12° before
sunrise and ending at tzais of 7.083° after sunset. Be aware that since the alos and tzais
do not use identical degreebased offsets, this leads to chatzos being at a time other than the
solar transit
(solar midday). To calculate this zman, use the following steps. Note
that plag hamincha is 10.75 hours after the start of the day, and the following steps are all that it takes.
Date plag = czc.getPlagHamincha(czc.getSunriseOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ 12), czc.getSunsetOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ ZENITH_7_POINT_083));
Something a drop more challenging, but still simple, would be calculating a zman using the same "complex" offset day used in the abovementioned Manchester calendar, but for a shaos zmaniyos based zman not supported by this library, such as calculating the point that one should be makpid not to eat on erev Shabbos or erev Yom Tov. This is 9 shaos zmaniyos into the day.
 Calculate the shaah zmanis in milliseconds for this day
 Add 9 of these shaos zmaniyos to alos starting at 12°
long shaahZmanis = czc.getTemporalHour(czc.getSunriseOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ 12), czc.getSunsetOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ ZENITH_7_POINT_083)); Date sofZmanAchila = getTimeOffset(czc.getSunriseOffsetByDegrees(AstronomicalCalendar.GEOMETRIC_ZENITH
+ 12), shaahZmanis * 9);
Calculating this sof zman achila according to the GRA is simplicity itself.
Date sofZmanAchila = czc.getTimeOffset(czc.getSunrise(), czc.getShaahZmanisGra() * 9);
Documentation from the ZmanimCalendar
parent class
The ZmanimCalendar is a specialized calendar that can calculate sunrise, sunset and Jewish zmanim
(religious times) for prayers and other Jewish religious duties. This class contains the main functionality of the
Zmanim library. For a much more extensive list of zmanim, use the ComplexZmanimCalendar
that
extends this class. See documentation for the ComplexZmanimCalendar
and AstronomicalCalendar
for
simple examples on using the API.
Elevation based zmanim (even sunrise and sunset) should not be used lekula without the guidance
of a posek. According to Rabbi Dovid Yehudah Bursztyn in his
Zmanim Kehilchasam, 7th edition chapter 2, section 7 (pages 181182)
and section 9 (pages 186187), no zmanim besides sunrise and sunset should use elevation. However, Rabbi Yechiel
Avrahom Zilber in the Birur Halacha Vol. 6 Ch. 58 Pages
34 and
42 is of the opinion that elevation should be
accounted for in zmanim calculations. Related to this, Rabbi Yaakov Karp in Shimush Zekeinim, Ch. 1, page 17 states that obstructing horizons should
be factored into zmanim calculations. The setting defaults to false (elevation will not be used for
zmanim calculations besides sunrise and sunset), unless the setting is changed to true in ZmanimCalendar.setUseElevation(boolean)
. This will impact sunrise and sunsetbased zmanim such as AstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
,
AstronomicalCalendar.getSunset()
, ZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShmaGRA()
, alosbased zmanim such as ZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShmaMGA()
that are based on a fixed offset of sunrise or sunset and zmanim based on a percentage of the day such as
getSofZmanShmaMGA90MinutesZmanis()
that are based on sunrise and sunset. Even when set to
true it will not impact zmanim that are a degreebased offset of sunrise and sunset, such as getSofZmanShmaMGA16Point1Degrees()
or getSofZmanShmaBaalHatanya()
since
these zmanim are not linked to sunrise or sunset times (the calculations are based on the astronomical definition of
sunrise and sunset calculated in a vacuum with the solar radius above the horizon), and are therefore not impacted by the use
of elevation.
For additional information on the halachic impact of elevation on zmanim see:
 Zmanei Halacha Lema'aseh 4th edition by Rabbi Yedidya Manat. See section 1, pages 1112 for a very concise writeup, with details in section 2, pages 37  63 and 133  151.
 Zmanim Kehilchasam 7th edition, by Rabbi Dovid Yehuda Burstein, vol 1, chapter 2, pages 95  188.
 Hazmanim Bahalacha by Rabbi Chaim Banish , perek 7, pages 53  63.
Note: It is important to read the technical notes on top of the AstronomicalCalculator
documentation
before using this code.
I would like to thank Rabbi Yaakov Shakow, the author of Luach Ikvei Hayom who spent a considerable amount of time reviewing, correcting and making suggestions on the documentation in this library.
Disclaimer:
I did my best to get accurate results, but please doublecheck before relying on these zmanim for halacha lema'aseh. Author:
 © Eliyahu Hershfeld 2004  2024

Nested Class Summary
Nested classes/interfaces inherited from class com.kosherjava.zmanim.AstronomicalCalendar
AstronomicalCalendar.SolarEvent

Field Summary
Modifier and TypeFieldDescriptionprivate double
The offset in minutes (defaults to 40) after sunset used for tzeit based on calculations of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah.protected static final double
The zenith of 1.583° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 10.2° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 11° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 11.5° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 13.24° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 16.9° below geometric zenith (90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 19° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 19.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 26° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
Deprecated.This will be removed in v3.0.0 since calculations show that this time is earlier than 13.5 minutes at the around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem.protected static final double
Deprecated.This will be removed in v3.0.0 since calculations show that this time is earlier than 13.5 minutes at the around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem.protected static final double
The zenith of 3.7° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 3.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 4.37° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 4.61° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 4.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 5.88° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 5.95° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 6° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 6.45° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 7.083° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 7.65° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 7.67° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 9.3° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 9.5° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 9.75° belowgeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 2.1° abovegeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 2.8° abovegeometric zenith
(90°).protected static final double
The zenith of 3.05° abovegeometric zenith
(90°).Fields inherited from class com.kosherjava.zmanim.ZmanimCalendar
ZENITH_16_POINT_1, ZENITH_8_POINT_5
Fields inherited from class com.kosherjava.zmanim.AstronomicalCalendar
ASTRONOMICAL_ZENITH, CIVIL_ZENITH, GEOMETRIC_ZENITH, HOUR_MILLIS, MINUTE_MILLIS, NAUTICAL_ZENITH

Constructor Summary
ConstructorDescriptionDefault constructor will set a defaultGeoLocation()
, a defaultAstronomicalCalculator
and default the calendar to the current date.ComplexZmanimCalendar
(GeoLocation location) A constructor that takes aGeoLocation
as a parameter. 
Method Summary
Modifier and TypeMethodDescriptionDeprecated.This method should be used lechumra only (such as stopping to eat at this time on a fast day), since it returns a very early time, and if used lekula can result in doing mitzvos hayom too early according to most opinions.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only (such as stopping to eat at this time on a fast day), since it returns a very early time, and if used lekula can result in doing mitzvos hayom too early according to most opinions.Method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is16.1°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is18°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is19°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.Method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is19.8°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only (such as stopping to eat at this time on a fast day), since it returns a very early time, and if used lekula can result in doing mitzvos hayom too early according to most opinions.* Method to return alos (dawn) calculated as 60 minutes beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting).Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 72 minutes zmaniyos or 1/10th of the day before sunrise.Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 90 minutes beforesea level sunrise
based on the time to walk the distance of 4 mil at 22.5 minutes a mil.Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 90 minutes zmaniyos or 1/8th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting).Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 96 minutes beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting) that is based on the time to walk the distance of 4 mil at 24 minutes a mil.This method returns alos (dawn) calculated using 96 minutes zmaniyos or 1/7.5th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting).Returns the Baal Hatanya's alos (dawn) calculated as the time when the sun is 16.9° below the easterngeometric horizon
beforesunrise
.double
Returns the offset in minutes after sunset used to calculate tzais based on the calculations of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah calculations.Method to return the beginning of bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated when the sun is13.24°
below the westerngeometric horizon
(90°) after sunset.This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated according to the opinion of the Divrei Yosef (see Yisrael Vehazmanim) calculated 5/18th (27.77%) of the time between alos (calculated as 19.8° before sunrise) and sunrise.This method returns the beginning of Bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated as a 58.5 minute offset after sunset.This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as 13.5 minutes or 3/4 of an 18minute mil before sunset.This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as 16.875 minutes or 3/4 of a 22.5minute mil before sunset.This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as 18 minutes or 3/4 of a 24minute mil before sunset.This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as the sun's position 2.1° above the horizon around the equinox / equilux in Yerushalayim, its position 13.5 minutes or 3/4 of an 18minute mil before sunset.This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as the sun's position 2.8° above the horizon around the equinox / equilux, its position 16.875 minutes or 3/4 of an 18minute mil before sunset.This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as the sun's position 3.05° above the horizon around the equinox / equilux, its position 18 minutes or 3/4 of an 24minute mil before sunset.Deprecated.Deprecated.Deprecated.Deprecated.Deprecated.Deprecated.Deprecated.Deprecated.Deprecated.Deprecated.A method that returns the local time for fixed chatzos.getFixedLocalChatzosBasedZmanim
(Date startOfHalfDay, Date endOfHalfDay, double hours) Deprecated.This method will be replaced in v3.0.0 by the more genericZmanimCalendar.getHalfDayBasedZman(Date, Date, double)
method.private Date
Used by Molad based zmanim to determine if zmanim occur during the current day.private Date
Used by Molad based zmanim to determine if zmanim occur during the current day.This method returns the time of mincha gedola according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon.This method returns mincha gedola calculated as 30 minutes afterchatzos
and not 1/2 of ashaah zmanis
afterchatzos
as calculated byZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola(java.util.Date, java.util.Date, boolean)
.This method returns the time of mincha gedola according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset.This method returns the time of mincha gedola based on the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that mincha gedola is calculated as half a shaah zmanis after chatzos with shaos zmaniyos calculated based on a day starting 72 minutes before sunrisealos 16.1°
and ending 13.5 minutes after sunsettzais 3.7°
.This method returns the time of mincha gedola based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).This method returns the time of mincha gedola.FIXME synchronous This is a convenience method that returns the later ofgetMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of mincha gedola, the earliest time one can pray mincha GRAthat is 30 minutes afterfixed local chatzos
.FIXME check for synchronous This is a convenience method that returns the later ofZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
.This method returns the time of mincha ketana according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon.This method returns the time of mincha ketana according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset.This method returns the time of mincha ketana based on the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that mincha ketana is calculated as 2.5 shaos zmaniyos beforetzais 3.8°
with shaos zmaniyos calculated based on a day starting atalos 16.1°
and ending at tzais 3.8°.This method returns the time of mincha ketana based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).This method returns the time of mincha ketana.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of mincha ketana (the preferred time to recite the mincha prayers according to the opinion of the Rambam and others) calculated according to the GRA that is 3.5 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) afterfixed local chatzos
.This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is10.2°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is11°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is11.5°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is7.65°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is9.5°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°).private Date
getMoladBasedTime
(Date moladBasedTime, Date alos, Date tzais, boolean techila) Returns the Date of the molad based time if it occurs on the current date.This method returns the time of plag hamincha (the earliest time that Shabbos can be started) based on the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that that plag hamincha is calculated as 1.25 shaos zmaniyos beforetzais 3.8°
with shaos zmaniyos calculated based on a day starting atalos 16.1°
and ending at tzais 3.8°.This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais
. 10.75 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time.Deprecated.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 60 minutes before sunrise and ending 60 minutes after sunset.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).This method returns the time of plag hamincha.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of plag hamincha.A method for calculating samuch lemincha ketana, / near mincha ketana time that is half an hour beforegetMinchaGedola16Point1Degrees()
or 9 * shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) after the start of the day, calculated using a day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon.A method for calculating samuch lemincha ketana, / near mincha ketana time that is half an hour beforegetMinchaKetana72Minutes()
or 9 * shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) after the start of the day, calculated using a day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset.A method for calculating samuch lemincha ketana, / near mincha ketana time that is half an hour beforeZmanimCalendar.getMinchaKetana()
or is 9 *shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) aftersunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting), calculated according to the GRA using a day starting at sunrise and ending at sunset.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 120 minutes.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 16.1°.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a 18° dip.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a 19.8° dip.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 26°.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (solar hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA).long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (solar hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA).long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 90 minutes.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 96 minutes.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) used by some zmanim according to the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that is based on a day starting 72 minutes before sunrise in degreesalos 16.1°
and ending 13.5 minutes after sunset in degreestzais 3.7°
.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) used by some zmanim according to the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that is based on a day starting 72 minutes before sunrise in degreesalos 16.1°
and ending 14 minutes after sunset in degreestzais 3.8°
.long
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah calculated with alos being 1/10th of sunrise to sunset day, or72
minutes zmaniyos of such a day beforesunrise
, and tzais is usually calculated as40 minutes
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) aftersunset
.long
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's a shaah zmanis (temporal hour
).This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Baal Hatanya.This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of theGRA.This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of theMagen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72 zmaniyos
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Baal Hatanya.FIXME adjust for synchronous This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the GRA.FIXME adjust for synchronous This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
.FIXME adjust for synchronous This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
.FIXME adjust for synchronous This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmanis beforesunrise
.Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana calculated as 15 days after the molad.getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days
(Date alos, Date tzais) Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana calculated as 15 days after the molad.Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana according to the Maharil's opinion that it is calculated as halfway between molad and molad.getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos
(Date alos, Date tzais) Returns the latest time of Kidush Levana according to the Maharil's opinion that it is calculated as halfway between molad and molad.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) calculated as 3 hours (regular clock hours and not shaos zmaniyos) beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends atsea level sunset
.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais 7.083°
. 3 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning).Deprecated.This method of calculating sof zman Shma is considered a mistaken understanding of the proper calculation of this zman in the opinion of Rav Yitzchak Silber's Sha'aos Shavos Bahalacha.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the GRA that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset, but calculated using the first half of the day only.Deprecated.As per a conversation Rabbi Yisroel Twerski had with Rabbi Harfenes, this zman published in the Yisrael Vehazmanim was based on a misunderstanding and should not be used.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes or 1/6th of the day beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall, but calculated using the first half of the day only.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being18°
beforesunrise
.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall, but calculated using the first half of the day only.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being19.8°
beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall, but calculated using the first half of the day only.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall, but calculated using the first half of the day only.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) calculated as 2 hours beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
).This method returns the latest zman tfilah (time to recite the morning prayers).Deprecated.This method of calculating sof zman Tfila is considered a mistaken understanding of the proper calculation of this zman in the opinion of Rav Yitzchak Silber's Sha'aos Shavos Bahalacha.This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman tfila (zman tfilah (the latest time to recite the morning prayers)) according to the opinion of the GRA that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset, but calculated using the first half of the day only.Deprecated.misspelled method name (all other methods spell tfila without an H) to be removed in 3.0.0.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being18°
beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being19.8°
beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes beforesunrise
.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
.private Date
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's netz amiti (sunrise) withoutelevation adjustment
.private Date
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's shkiah amiti (sunset) withoutelevation adjustment
.Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to Rabbeinu Yonah's opinion that it can be said 3 days after the molad.getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days
(Date alos, Date tzais) Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to Rabbeinu Yonah's opinion that it can be said 3 days after the molad.Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to the opinions that it should not be said until 7 days after the molad.getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days
(Date alos, Date tzais) Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to the opinions that it should not be said until 7 days after the molad.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time, and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time, and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.This calculates the time of tzais at the point when the sun is 16.1° below the horizon.For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos18Degrees()
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos19Point8Degrees()
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time, and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc.Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 50 minutes after sea level sunset.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Chavas Yair and Divrei Malkiel that the time to walk the distance of a mil is 15 minutes, for a total of 60 minutes for 4 mil aftersea level sunset
.Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 72 minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day aftersea level sunset
.Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 90 minutes after sea level sunset.Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 90 minutes zmaniyos or 1/8th of the day aftersea level sunset
.A method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 96 minutes after sea level sunset.Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 96 minutes zmaniyos or 1/7.5 of the day aftersea level sunset
.This method returns tzais usually calculated as 40 minutes (configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) after sunset.A method that returns tzais (nightfall) when the sun is 6° below the western geometric horizon (90°) aftersunset
.Deprecated.This will be removed in v3.0.0 since calculations show that this time is earlier than 13.5 minutes at the around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem.Deprecated.This will be removed in v3.0.0 since calculations show that this time is earlier than 13.5 minutes at the around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at3.7°
below the western horizon.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at3.8°
below the western horizon.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a mil, based on a 22.5minute mil, or 16 7/8 minutes.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a mil based on a 24minute mil, or 18 minutes.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a 24minute mil, based on a mil being 24 minutes, and is calculated as 18 + 2 + 4 for a total of 24 minutes.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at5.95°
below the western horizon.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim as calculated by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Tucazinsky.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated when the sun's position7.083° (or 7° 5â€²
) below the western horizon.This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 45 minutes after sunset during the summer solstice in New York, when the neshef (twilight) is the longest.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at8.5°
below the western horizon.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the calculations used in the Luach Itim Lebinah as the stringent time for tzais.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 60 minutes after sunset around the equinox / equilux, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes in New York.private Date
getZmanisBasedOffset
(double hours) A utility method to return alos (dawn) or tzais (dusk) based on a fractional day offset.Returns the point in time of Molad as aDate
Object.void
setAteretTorahSunsetOffset
(double ateretTorahSunsetOffset) Allows setting the offset in minutes after sunset for the Ateret Torah zmanim.Methods inherited from class com.kosherjava.zmanim.ZmanimCalendar
getAlos72, getAlosHashachar, getCandleLighting, getCandleLightingOffset, getChatzos, getChatzosAsHalfDay, getElevationAdjustedSunrise, getElevationAdjustedSunset, getHalfDayBasedShaahZmanis, getHalfDayBasedZman, getMinchaGedola, getMinchaGedola, getMinchaGedola, getMinchaKetana, getMinchaKetana, getMinchaKetana, getPercentOfShaahZmanisFromDegrees, getPlagHamincha, getPlagHamincha, getPlagHamincha, getSamuchLeMinchaKetana, getSamuchLeMinchaKetana, getShaahZmanisBasedZman, getShaahZmanisGra, getShaahZmanisMGA, getSofZmanShma, getSofZmanShma, getSofZmanShmaGRA, getSofZmanShmaMGA, getSofZmanTfila, getSofZmanTfila, getSofZmanTfilaGRA, getSofZmanTfilaMGA, getTzais, getTzais72, isAssurBemlacha, isUseAstronomicalChatzos, isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim, isUseElevation, setCandleLightingOffset, setUseAstronomicalChatzos, setUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim, setUseElevation
Methods inherited from class com.kosherjava.zmanim.AstronomicalCalendar
clone, equals, getAstronomicalCalculator, getBeginAstronomicalTwilight, getBeginCivilTwilight, getBeginNauticalTwilight, getCalendar, getDateFromTime, getEndAstronomicalTwilight, getEndCivilTwilight, getEndNauticalTwilight, getGeoLocation, getLocalMeanTime, getSeaLevelSunrise, getSeaLevelSunset, getSolarMidnight, getSunLowerTransit, getSunrise, getSunriseOffsetByDegrees, getSunriseSolarDipFromOffset, getSunset, getSunsetOffsetByDegrees, getSunsetSolarDipFromOffset, getSunTransit, getSunTransit, getTemporalHour, getTemporalHour, getTimeOffset, getTimeOffset, getUTCSeaLevelSunrise, getUTCSeaLevelSunset, getUTCSunrise, getUTCSunset, hashCode, setAstronomicalCalculator, setCalendar, setGeoLocation, toJSON, toString

Field Details

ZENITH_3_POINT_7
The zenith of 3.7° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim that tzais is the time it takes to walk 3/4 of a mil at 18 minutes a mil, or 13.5 minutes after sunset. The sun is 3.7° belowgeometric zenith
at this time in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux. 
ZENITH_3_POINT_8
The zenith of 3.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim that tzais is the time it takes to walk 3/4 of a mil at 18 minutes a mil, or 13.5 minutes after sunset. The sun is 3.8° belowgeometric zenith
at this time in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux. 
ZENITH_5_POINT_95
The zenith of 5.95° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 24 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 5.95° belowgeometric zenith
. 
ZENITH_7_POINT_083
The zenith of 7.083° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This is often referred to as 7°5' or 7° and 5 minutes. This calculation is used for calculating alos (dawn) and tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on observation of 3 mediumsized stars by Dr. Baruch Cohen in his calendar published in 1899 in Strasbourg, France. This calculates to 7.0833333° belowgeometric zenith
. The Sh"Ut Melamed Leho'il in Orach Chaim 30 agreed to this zman, as did the Sh"Ut Bnei Tziyon and the Tenuvas Sadeh. It is very close to the time of the Mekor Chesed of the Sefer chasidim. It is close to the position of the sun 30 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, but not Exactly. The actual position of the sun 30 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem at the equilux is 7.205° and 7.199° at the equinox. See Hazmanim Bahalacha vol 2, pages 520521 for details. See Also:
 TODO:
 Hyperlink the proper sources.

ZENITH_10_POINT_2
The zenith of 10.2° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 45 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux which calculates to 10.2° belowgeometric zenith
. 
ZENITH_11_DEGREES
The zenith of 11° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 48 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 11° belowgeometric zenith
. 
ZENITH_11_POINT_5
The zenith of 11.5° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 52 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 11.5° belowgeometric zenith
. 
ZENITH_13_POINT_24
The zenith of 13.24° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating Rabbeinu Tam's bain hashmashos according to some opinions. NOTE: See comments ongetBainHashmashosRT13Point24Degrees()
for additional details about the degrees. 
ZENITH_19_DEGREES
The zenith of 19° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating alos according to some opinions. 
ZENITH_19_POINT_8
The zenith of 19.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating alos (dawn) and tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 90 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux which calculates to 19.8° belowgeometric zenith
. 
ZENITH_26_DEGREES
The zenith of 26° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating alos (dawn) and tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun120 minutes
after sunset in Jerusalem oaround the equinox / equilux which calculates to 26° belowgeometric zenith
. Since the level of darkness when the sun is 26° and at a point when the level of darkness is long past the 18° point where the darkest point is reached, it should only be used lechumra such as delaying the start of nighttime mitzvos or avoiding eating this early on a fast day. 
ZENITH_4_POINT_37
The zenith of 4.37° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun16 7/8 minutes
after sunset (3/4 of a 22.5minute mil) in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 4.37° belowgeometric zenith
. 
ZENITH_4_POINT_61
The zenith of 4.61° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun18 minutes
after sunset (3/4 of a 24minute mil) in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 4.61° belowgeometric zenith
. See Also:
 TODO:
 add documentation links

ZENITH_4_POINT_8
The zenith of 4.8° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). See Also:
 TODO:
 Add more documentation.

ZENITH_3_POINT_65
Deprecated.This will be removed in v3.0.0 since calculations show that this time is earlier than 13.5 minutes at the around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem.The zenith of 3.65° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun13.5 minutes
after sunset (3/4 of an 18minute mil) in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux which calculates to 3.65° belowgeometric zenith
. 
ZENITH_3_POINT_676
Deprecated.This will be removed in v3.0.0 since calculations show that this time is earlier than 13.5 minutes at the around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem.The zenith of 3.676° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). See Also:
 TODO:
 Add more documentation.

ZENITH_5_POINT_88
The zenith of 5.88° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). See Also:
 TODO:
 Add more documentation.

ZENITH_1_POINT_583
The zenith of 1.583° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating netz amiti (sunrise) and shkiah amiti (sunset) based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. 
ZENITH_16_POINT_9
The zenith of 16.9° below geometric zenith (90°). This calculation is used for determining alos (dawn) based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. It is based on the calculation that the time between dawn and netz amiti (sunrise) is 72 minutes, the time that is takes to walk 4 mil at 18 minutes a mil (Rambam and others). The sun's position at 72 minutes beforenetz amiti (sunrise)
in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux is 16.9° belowgeometric zenith
. See Also:

ZENITH_6_DEGREES
The zenith of 6° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais / nightfall based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 24 minutes aftersunset
in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which is 6° belowgeometric zenith
. See Also:

ZENITH_6_POINT_45
The zenith of 6.45° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. This is based on the calculations of Rabbi Yechiel Michel Tucazinsky of the position of the sun no later than31 minutes
after sunset in Jerusalem, and at the height of the summer solstice, this zman is 28 minutes after shkiah. This computes to 6.45° belowgeometric zenith
. This calculation is found in the Birur Halacha Yoreh Deah 262 it the commonly used zman in Israel. It should be noted that this differs from the 6.1°/6.2° calculation for Rabbi Tucazinsky's time as calculated by the Hazmanim Bahalacha Vol II chapter 50:7 (page 515). 
ZENITH_7_POINT_65
The zenith of 7.65° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. 
ZENITH_7_POINT_67
The zenith of 7.67° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais according to some opinions. 
ZENITH_9_POINT_3
The zenith of 9.3° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. 
ZENITH_9_POINT_5
The zenith of 9.5° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. 
ZENITH_9_POINT_75
The zenith of 9.75° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating alos (dawn) and tzais (nightfall) according to some opinions. 
ZENITH_MINUS_2_POINT_1
The zenith of 2.1° abovegeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating the start of bain hashmashos (twilight) of 13.5 minutes before sunset converted to degrees according to the Yereim. As is traditional with degrees below the horizon, this is calculated without refraction and from the center of the sun. It would be 0.833° less without this. 
ZENITH_MINUS_2_POINT_8
The zenith of 2.8° abovegeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating the start of bain hashmashos (twilight) of 16.875 minutes before sunset converted to degrees according to the Yereim. As is traditional with degrees below the horizon, this is calculated without refraction and from the center of the sun. It would be 0.833° less without this. 
ZENITH_MINUS_3_POINT_05
The zenith of 3.05° abovegeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating the start of bain hashmashos (twilight) of 18 minutes before sunset converted to degrees according to the Yereim. As is traditional with degrees below the horizon, this is calculated without refraction and from the center of the sun. It would be 0.833° less without this. 
ateretTorahSunsetOffset
The offset in minutes (defaults to 40) after sunset used for tzeit based on calculations of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah.


Constructor Details

ComplexZmanimCalendar
A constructor that takes aGeoLocation
as a parameter. Parameters:
location
 the location See Also:

ComplexZmanimCalendar
public ComplexZmanimCalendar()Default constructor will set a defaultGeoLocation()
, a defaultAstronomicalCalculator
and default the calendar to the current date. See Also:


Method Details

getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a 19.8° dip. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is when the sun is 19.8° below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. Dusk for this is when the sun is 19.8° below the western geometric horizon after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis18Degrees
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a 18° dip. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is when the sun is 18° below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. Dusk for this is when the sun is 18° below the western geometric horizon after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis26Degrees
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 26°. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is when the sun is26°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. Dusk for this is when the sun is26°
below the western geometric horizon after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Since zmanim that use this method are extremely late or early and at a point when the sky is a long time past the 18° point where the darkest point is reached, zmanim that use this should only be used lechumra, such as delaying the start of nighttime mitzvos. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 16.1°. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is when the sun is 16.1° below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise and dusk is when the sun is 16.1° below the western geometric horizon after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanis60Minutes
Method to return a shaah zmanis (solar hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA). This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 60 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 60 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Alternate methods of calculating a shaah zmanis are available in the subclassComplexZmanimCalendar
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanis72Minutes
Method to return a shaah zmanis (solar hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA). This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 72 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 72 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Alternate methods of calculating a shaah zmanis are available in the subclassComplexZmanimCalendar
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 72 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise and dusk is 72 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. This is identical to 1/10th of the day fromsunrise
tosunset
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanis90Minutes
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 90 minutes. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 90 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 90 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 90 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise and dusk is 90 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. This is 1/8th of the day fromsunrise
tosunset
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 96 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise and dusk is 96 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. This is identical to 1/7.5th of the day fromsunrise
tosunset
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanisAteretTorah
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah calculated with alos being 1/10th of sunrise to sunset day, or72
minutes zmaniyos of such a day beforesunrise
, and tzais is usually calculated as40 minutes
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) aftersunset
. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Note that with this system, chatzos (midday) will not be the point that the sun ishalfway across the sky
. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanisAlos16Point1ToTzais3Point8
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) used by some zmanim according to the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that is based on a day starting 72 minutes before sunrise in degreesalos 16.1°
and ending 14 minutes after sunset in degreestzais 3.8°
. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Note that with this system, chatzos (midday) will not be the point that the sun ishalfway across the sky
. These shaos zmaniyos are used for Mincha Ketana and Plag Hamincha. The 14 minutes are based on 3/4 of an 18 minute mil, with half a minute added for Rav Yosi. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanisAlos16Point1ToTzais3Point7
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) used by some zmanim according to the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that is based on a day starting 72 minutes before sunrise in degreesalos 16.1°
and ending 13.5 minutes after sunset in degreestzais 3.7°
. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Note that with this system, chatzos (midday) will not be the point that the sun ishalfway across the sky
. These shaos zmaniyos are used for Mincha Gedola calculation. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanis96Minutes
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 96 minutes. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 96 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 96 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getShaahZmanis120Minutes
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) calculated using a dip of 120 minutes. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 120 minutes before sunrise and dusk is 120 minutes after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. Since zmanim that use this method are extremely late or early and at a point when the sky is a long time past the 18° point where the darkest point is reached, zmanim that use this should only be used lechumra only, such as delaying the start of nighttime mitzvos. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanis120MinutesZmanis
Method to return a shaah zmanis (temporal hour) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the MGA that the day runs from dawn to dusk. Dawn for this calculation is 120 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise and dusk is 120 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This day is split into 12 equal parts with each part being a shaah zmanis. This is identical to 1/6th of the day fromsunrise
tosunset
. Since zmanim that use this method are extremely late or early and at a point when the sky is a long time past the 18° point where the darkest point is reached, zmanim that use this should only be used lechumra such as delaying the start of nighttime mitzvos. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, aLong.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha120MinutesZmanis
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha based on sunrise being 120 minutes zmaniyos or 1/6th of the day before sunrise. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis120MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Since the zman based on an extremely early alos and a very late tzais, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha120Minutes
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 120 minutes before sunrise and ending 120 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn 120 minutes
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
aftergetAlos120()
. Since the zman based on an extremely early alos and a very late tzais, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos60
* Method to return alos (dawn) calculated as 60 minutes beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). This is the time to walk the distance of 4 mil at 15 minutes a mil. This seems to be the opinion of the Chavas Yair in the Mekor Chaim, Orach Chaim Ch. 90, though the Mekor Chaim in Ch. 58 and in the Chut Hashani Ch. 97 states that a person walks 3 and a 1/3 mil in an hour, or an 18minute mil. Also see the Divrei Malkiel Vol. 4, Ch. 20, page 34) who mentions the 15 minute mil lechumra by baking matzos. Also see the Maharik Ch. 173 where the questioner quoting the Ra'avan is of the opinion that the time to walk a mil is 15 minutes (5 mil in a little over an hour). There are many who believe that there is a ta'us sofer (scribe's error) in the Ra'avan, and it should 4 mil in a little over an hour, or an 18minute mil. Time based offset calculations are based on the opinion of the Rishonim who stated that the time of the neshef (time between dawn and sunrise) does not vary by the time of year or location but purely depends on the time it takes to walk the distance of 4* mil.getTzaisGeonim9Point75Degrees()
is a related zman that is a degreebased calculation based on 60 minutes. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
. documentation.  See Also:

getAlos72Zmanis
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 72 minutes zmaniyos or 1/10th of the day before sunrise. This is based on an 18minute mil so the time for 4 mil is 72 minutes which is 1/10th of a day (12 * 60 = 720) based on the day being fromsea level sunrise
tosea level sunset
orsunrise
tosunset
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). The actual calculation isAstronomicalCalendar.getSeaLevelSunrise()
 (ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
* 1.2). This calculation is used in the calendars published by the Hisachdus Harabanim D'Artzos Habris Ve'Canada. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos96
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 96 minutes beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting) that is based on the time to walk the distance of 4 mil at 24 minutes a mil. Time based offset calculations for alos are based on the opinion of the Rishonim who stated that the time of the Neshef (time between dawn and sunrise) does not vary by the time of year or location but purely depends on the time it takes to walk the distance of 4 mil. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getAlos90Zmanis
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 90 minutes zmaniyos or 1/8th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). This is based on a 22.5minute mil so the time for 4 mil is 90 minutes which is 1/8th of a day (12 * 60) / 8 = 90. The day is calculated fromsea level sunrise
tosea level sunset
orsunrise
tosunset
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
. The actual calculation used isAstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
 (ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
* 1.5). Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos96Zmanis
This method returns alos (dawn) calculated using 96 minutes zmaniyos or 1/7.5th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). This is based on a 24minute mil so the time for 4 mil is 96 minutes which is 1/7.5th of a day (12 * 60 / 7.5 = 96). The day is calculated fromsea level sunrise
tosea level sunset
orsunrise
tosunset
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
. The actual calculation used isAstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
 (ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
* 1.6). Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos90
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated using 90 minutes beforesea level sunrise
based on the time to walk the distance of 4 mil at 22.5 minutes a mil. Timebased offset calculations for alos are based on the opinion of the Rishonim who stated that the time of the Neshef (time between dawn and sunrise) does not vary by the time of year or location but purely depends on the time it takes to walk the distance of 4 mil. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getAlos120
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only (such as stopping to eat at this time on a fast day), since it returns a very early time, and if used lekula can result in doing mitzvos hayom too early according to most opinions. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns alos (dawn) calculated using 120 minutes beforesea level sunrise
(no adjustment for elevation is made) based on the time to walk the distance of 5 mil (Ula) at 24 minutes a mil. Time based offset calculations for alos are based on the* opinion of the Rishonim who stated that the time of the neshef (time between dawn and sunrise) does not vary by the time of year or location but purely depends on the time it takes to walk the distance of 5 mil (Ula). Since this time is extremely early, it should only be used lechumra, such as not eating after this time on a fast day, and not as the start time for mitzvos that can only be performed during the day. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos120Zmanis
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only (such as stopping to eat at this time on a fast day), since it returns a very early time, and if used lekula can result in doing mitzvos hayom too early according to most opinions. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and method returns alos (dawn) calculated using 120 minutes zmaniyos or 1/6th of the day beforesunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting). This is based on a 24minute mil so the time for 5 mil is 120 minutes which is 1/6th of a day (12 * 60 / 6 = 120). The day is calculated fromsea level sunrise
tosea level sunset
orsunrise
tosunset
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
. The actual calculation used isAstronomicalCalendar.getSunrise()
 (ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
* 2). Since this time is extremely early, it should only be used lechumra, such as not eating after this time on a fast day, and not as the start time for mitzvos that can only be performed during the day. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos26Degrees
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only (such as stopping to eat at this time on a fast day), since it returns a very early time, and if used lekula can result in doing mitzvos hayom too early according to most opinions. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is26°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. This calculation is based on the same calculation of120 minutes
but uses a degreebased calculation instead of 120 exact minutes. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 120 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 26° belowgeometric zenith
. Since this time is extremely early, it should only be used lechumra only, such as not eating after this time on a fast day, and not as the start time for mitzvos that can only be performed during the day. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos18Degrees
A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is18°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos19Degrees
A method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is19°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. This is the Rambam's alos according to Rabbi Moshe Kosower's Maaglei Tzedek, page 88, Ayeles Hashachar Vol. I, page 12, Yom Valayla Shel Torah, Ch. 34, p. 222 and Rabbi Yaakov Shakow's Luach Ikvei Hayom. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos19Point8Degrees
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is19.8°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. This calculation is based on the same calculation of90 minutes
but uses a degreebased calculation instead of 90 exact minutes. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 90 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 19.8° belowgeometric zenith
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlos16Point1Degrees
Method to return alos (dawn) calculated when the sun is16.1°
below the eastern geometric horizon before sunrise. This calculation is based on the same calculation of72 minutes
but uses a degreebased calculation instead of 72 exact minutes. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 72 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 16.1° belowgeometric zenith
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing alos. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMisheyakir11Point5Degrees
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is11.5°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 52 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 11.5° belowgeometric zenith
. Returns:
 the
Date
of misheyakir. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 recalculate.

getMisheyakir11Degrees
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is11°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 48 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 11° belowgeometric zenith
. Returns:
 If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic
Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for
this calculation, a
null
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMisheyakir10Point2Degrees
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is10.2°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is used for calculating misheyakir according to some opinions. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 45 minutes beforesunrise
in Jerusalem around the equinox which calculates to 10.2° belowgeometric zenith
. Returns:
 the
Date
of misheyakir. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMisheyakir7Point65Degrees
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is7.65°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). The degrees are based on a 35/36 minute zman around the equinox / equilux, when the neshef (twilight) is the shortest. This time is based on Rabbi Moshe Feinstein who writes in Ohr Hachaim Vol. 4, Ch. 6) that misheyakir in New York is 3540 minutes before sunrise, something that is a drop less than 8°. Rabbi Yisroel Taplin in Zmanei Yisrael (page 117) notes that Rabbi Yaakov Kamenetsky stated that it is not less than 36 minutes before sunrise (maybe it is 40 minutes). Sefer Yisrael Vehazmanim (p. 7) quotes the Tamar Yifrach in the name of the Satmar Rov that one should be stringent not consider misheyakir before 36 minutes. This is also the accepted minhag in Lakewood that is used in the Yeshiva. This follows the opinion of Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who provided the time of 35/36 minutes, but did not provide a degreebased time. Since this zman depends on the level of light, Rabbi Yaakov Shakow presented this degreebased calculations to Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who agreed to them. Returns:
 the
Date
of misheyakir. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMisheyakir9Point5Degrees
This method returns misheyakir based on the position of the sun when it is9.5°
belowgeometric zenith
(90°). This calculation is based on Rabbi Dovid Kronglass's Calculation of 45 minutes in Baltimore as mentioned in Divrei Chachamim No. 24 brought down by the Birur Halacha, Tinyana, Ch. 18. This calculates to 9.5°. Also see Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchok Neiman in Kovetz Eitz Chaim Vol. 9, p. 202 that the Vya'an Yosef did not want to rely on times earlier than 45 minutes in New York. This zman is also used in the calendars published by Rabbi Hershel Edelstein. As mentioned in Yisroel Vehazmanim, Rabbi Edelstein who was given the 45 minute zman by Rabbi Bick. The calendars published by the Edot Hamizrach communities also use this zman. This also follows the opinion of Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who provided the time of 36 and 45 minutes, but did not provide a degreebased time. Since this zman depends on the level of light, Rabbi Yaakov Shakow presented these degreebased times to Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who agreed to them. Returns:
 the
Date
of misheyakir. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA19Point8Degrees
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being19.8°
beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 19.8° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA16Point1Degrees
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 16.1° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA18Degrees
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being18°
beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 18° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA72Minutes
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afterdawn
. This class returns an identical time toZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanShmaMGA()
and is repeated here for clarity. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA72MinutesZmanis
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day beforesea level sunrise
tonightfall
of 72 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA90Minutes
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 90 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 90 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA90MinutesZmanis
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 90 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 90 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA96Minutes
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 96 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 96 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA96MinutesZmanis
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 96 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 96 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 3 *getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) calculated as 3 hours (regular clock hours and not shaos zmaniyos) beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. Generally known as part of the "Komarno" zmanim after Rav Yitzchak Eizik of Komarno, a proponent of this calculation, it actually predates him a lot. It is the opinion of the Shach in the Nekudas Hakesef (Yoreh Deah 184), Rav Moshe Lifshitz in his commentary Lechem Mishneh on Brachos 1:2. It is next brought down about 100 years later by the Yaavetz (in his siddur, Mor Uktziah Orach Chaim 1, Lechem Shamayim, Brachos 1:2 and She'elos Yaavetz vol. 1 no. 40), Rav Yitzchak Eizik of Komarno in the Ma'aseh Oreg on Mishnayos Brachos 11:2, Shevus Yaakov, Chasan Sofer and others. See Yisrael Vehazmanim vol. 1 7:3, page 55  62. A variant of this calculationgetSofZmanShmaFixedLocal()
usesfixed local chatzos
for calculating this type of zman. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA120Minutes
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes or 1/6th of the day beforesunrise
. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 120 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 120 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 3getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
afterdawn
. This is an extremely early zman that is very much a chumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaAlos16Point1ToSunset
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends atsea level sunset
. This is the opinion of the ×—×™×“×•×©×™ ×•×›×œ×œ×•×ª ×”×¨×–×´×” and the ×ž× ×•×¨×” ×”×˜×”×•×¨×” as mentioned by Yisrael Vehazmanim vol 1, sec. 7, ch. 3 no. 16. Three shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 3 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion that the day is calculated from aalos 16.1°
tosea level sunset
. Note: Based on this calculation chatzos will not be at midday andZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim()
will be ignored. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this day. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaAlos16Point1ToTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais 7.083°
. 3 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 3 shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) afteralos 16.1°
based on the opinion that the day is calculated from aalos 16.1°
totzais 7.083°
. Note: Based on this calculation chatzos will not be at midday andZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim()
will be ignored. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaKolEliyahu
Deprecated.As per a conversation Rabbi Yisroel Twerski had with Rabbi Harfenes, this zman published in the Yisrael Vehazmanim was based on a misunderstanding and should not be used. This deprecated method will be removed (likely in v3.0) pending confirmation from Rabbi Harfenes.From the GRA in Kol Eliyahu on Berachos #173 that states that zman krias shema is calculated as half the time fromsea level sunrise
tofixed local chatzos
. The GRA himself seems to contradict this when he stated that zman krias shema is 1/4 of the day from sunrise to sunset. See Sarah Lamoed #25 in Yisroel Vehazmanim Vol. III page 1016. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA19Point8Degrees
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being19.8°
beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 19.8° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA16Point1Degrees
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 16.1° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA18Degrees
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being18°
beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 18° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA72Minutes
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afterdawn
. This class returns an identical time toZmanimCalendar.getSofZmanTfilaMGA()
and is repeated here for clarity. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfila. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA72MinutesZmanis
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA90Minutes
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 90 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 90 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfila. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA90MinutesZmanis
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being90
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 90 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 90 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA96Minutes
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 96 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 96 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfila. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA96MinutesZmanis
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being96
minutes zmaniyos beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 96 minutes zmaniyos before sunrise tonightfall
of 96 minutes zmaniyos after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaMGA120Minutes
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being120
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 120 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 120 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis120Minutes()
afterdawn
. This is an extremely early zman that is very much a chumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfila2HoursBeforeChatzos
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) calculated as 2 hours beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. This is based on the opinions that calculate sof zman krias shema asgetSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos()
. This returns the time of 2 hours beforeZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaGedola30Minutes
This method returns mincha gedola calculated as 30 minutes afterchatzos
and not 1/2 of ashaah zmanis
afterchatzos
as calculated byZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola(java.util.Date, java.util.Date, boolean)
. Some use this time to delay the start of mincha in the winter when 1/2 of ashaah zmanis
is less than 30 minutes. SeegetMinchaGedolaGreaterThan30()
for a convenience method that returns the later of the 2 calculations. One should not use this time to start mincha before the standardmincha gedola
. See Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 234:1 and the Shaar Hatziyon seif katan ches. Since this calculation is a fixed 30 minutes of regular clock time after chatzos, even ifZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim()
isfalse
, this mincha gedola time will be affected byZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzos()
and not byZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of 30 minutes after chatzos. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaGedola72Minutes
This method returns the time of mincha gedola according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset. This is the earliest time to pray mincha. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 6.5solar hours
after alos. The calculation used is 6.5 *getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afteralos
. IfZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim()
is set totrue
, the calculation will be based on 0.5halfday based sha'ah zmanis
betweenZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
andZmanimCalendar.getTzais72()
afterZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaGedola16Point1Degrees
This method returns the time of mincha gedola according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon. This is the earliest time to pray mincha. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 6.5solar hours
after alos. The calculation used is 6.5 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afteralos
. IfZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim()
is set totrue
, the calculation will be based on 0.5halfday based sha'ah zmanis
betweenZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
andgetAlos16Point1Degrees()
afterZmanimCalendar.getChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaGedolaAhavatShalom
This method returns the time of mincha gedola based on the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that mincha gedola is calculated as half a shaah zmanis after chatzos with shaos zmaniyos calculated based on a day starting 72 minutes before sunrisealos 16.1°
and ending 13.5 minutes after sunsettzais 3.7°
. Mincha gedola is the earliest time to pray mincha. The later of this time or 30 clock minutes after chatzos is returned. SeegetMinchaGedolaGreaterThan30()
(though that calculation is based on mincha gedola GRA). For more information about mincha gedola see the documentation onmincha gedola
. Since calculation of this zman involves chatzos that is offset from the center of the astronomical day,ZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim()
is N/A here. Returns:
 the
Date
of the mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaGedolaGreaterThan30
FIXME check for synchronous This is a convenience method that returns the later ofZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
. In the winter when 1/2 of ashaah zmanis
is less than 30 minutesgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
will be returned, otherwiseZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
will be returned. Since this calculation can be an offset of chatzos (if 30 clock minutes > 1/2 of a shaah zmanis), even ifZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzosForOtherZmanim()
isfalse
, this mincha time may be affected byZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the later ofZmanimCalendar.getMinchaGedola()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaKetana16Point1Degrees
This method returns the time of mincha ketana according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon. This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 9.5solar hours
after alos. The calculation used is 9.5 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaKetanaAhavatShalom
This method returns the time of mincha ketana based on the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that mincha ketana is calculated as 2.5 shaos zmaniyos beforetzais 3.8°
with shaos zmaniyos calculated based on a day starting atalos 16.1°
and ending at tzais 3.8°. Mincha ketana is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha ketana
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaKetana72Minutes
This method returns the time of mincha ketana according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset. This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 9.5getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
after alos. The calculation used is 9.5 *getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha60Minutes
This method returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 60 minutes before sunrise and ending 60 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis60Minutes()
aftergetAlos60()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha72Minutes
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis72Minutes()
afterZmanimCalendar.getAlos72()
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha90Minutes
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 90 minutes before sunrise and ending 90 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis90Minutes()
aftergetAlos90()
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha96Minutes
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha according to the Magen Avraham with the day starting 96 minutes before sunrise and ending 96 minutes after sunset. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75getShaahZmanis96Minutes()
aftergetAlos96()
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha96MinutesZmanis
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis96MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getPlagHamincha90MinutesZmanis
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha. This is calculated as 10.75 hours afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis90MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getPlagHamincha72MinutesZmanis
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha. This is calculated as 10.75 hours aftergetAlos72Zmanis()
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getPlagHamincha16Point1Degrees
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais 16.1°
. This is calculated as 10.75 hours zmaniyos afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
aftergetAlos16Point1Degrees()
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha19Point8Degrees
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 19.8°
and ends attzais 19.8°
. This is calculated as 10.75 hours zmaniyos afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis19Point8Degrees()
aftergetAlos19Point8Degrees()
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha26Degrees
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 26°
and ends attzais 26°
. This is calculated as 10.75 hours zmaniyos afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis26Degrees()
aftergetAlos26Degrees()
. Since the zman based on an extremely early alos and a very late tzais, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHamincha18Degrees
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time (often after shkiah), and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 18°
and ends attzais 18°
. This is calculated as 10.75 hours zmaniyos afterdawn
. The formula used is 10.75 *getShaahZmanis18Degrees()
aftergetAlos18Degrees()
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagAlosToSunset
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only and returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends atsunset
. 10.75 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 10.75 shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion that the day is calculated from adawn
of 16.1 degrees before sunrise tosea level sunset
. This returns the time of 10.75 * the calculated shaah zmanis afterdawn
. Since plag by this calculation can occur after sunset, it should only be used lechumra. Returns:
 the
Date
of the plag. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagAlos16Point1ToTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the opinion that the day starts atalos 16.1°
and ends attzais
. 10.75 shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 10.75 shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion that the day is calculated from adawn
of 16.1 degrees before sunrise totzais
. This returns the time of 10.75 * the calculated shaah zmanis afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the plag. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagAhavatShalom
This method returns the time of plag hamincha (the earliest time that Shabbos can be started) based on the opinion of Rabbi Yaakov Moshe Hillel as published in the luach of the Bais Horaah of Yeshivat Chevrat Ahavat Shalom that that plag hamincha is calculated as 1.25 shaos zmaniyos beforetzais 3.8°
with shaos zmaniyos calculated based on a day starting atalos 16.1°
and ending at tzais 3.8°. Returns:
 the
Date
of the plag. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getBainHashmashosRT13Point24Degrees
Method to return the beginning of bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated when the sun is13.24°
below the westerngeometric horizon
(90°) after sunset. This calculation is based on the same calculation ofbain hashmashos Rabbeinu Tam 58.5 minutes
but uses a degreebased calculation instead of 58.5 exact minutes. This calculation is based on the position of the sun 58.5 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, which calculates to 13.24° belowgeometric zenith
. NOTE: As per Yisrael Vehazmanim Vol. III page 1028, No. 50, a dip of slightly less than 13° should be used. Calculations show that the proper dip to be 13.2456° (truncated to 13.24 that provides about 1.5 second earlier (lechumra) time) below the horizon at that time. This makes a difference of 1 minute and 10 seconds in Jerusalem during the Equinox, and 1 minute 29 seconds during the solstice as compared to the proper 13.24° versus 13°. For NY during the solstice, the difference is 1 minute 56 seconds. Returns:
 the
Date
of the sun being 13.24° belowgeometric zenith
(90°). If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 recalculate the above based on equilux/equinox calculations.

getBainHasmashosRT13Point24Degrees
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosRT13Point24Degrees()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosRT58Point5Minutes
This method returns the beginning of Bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated as a 58.5 minute offset after sunset. bain hashmashos is 3/4 of a mil before tzais or 3 1/4 mil after sunset. With a mil calculated as 18 minutes, 3.25 * 18 = 58.5 minutes. Returns:
 the
Date
of 58.5 minutes after sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getBainHasmashosRT58Point5Minutes
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosRT58Point5Minutes()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosRT13Point5MinutesBefore7Point083Degrees
This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos based on the calculation of 13.5 minutes (3/4 of an 18minute mil) before shkiah calculated as7.083°
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam in this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getBainHasmashosRT13Point5MinutesBefore7Point083Degrees
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosRT13Point5MinutesBefore7Point083Degrees()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosRT2Stars
This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam calculated according to the opinion of the Divrei Yosef (see Yisrael Vehazmanim) calculated 5/18th (27.77%) of the time between alos (calculated as 19.8° before sunrise) and sunrise. This is added to sunset to arrive at the time for bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam. Returns:
 the
Date
of bain hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam for this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getBainHasmashosRT2Stars
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosRT2Stars()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosYereim18Minutes
This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as 18 minutes or 3/4 of a 24minute mil before sunset. According to the Yereim, bain hashmashos starts 3/4 of a mil before sunset and tzais or nightfall starts at sunset. Returns:
 the
Date
of 18 minutes before sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getBainHasmashosYereim18Minutes
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosYereim18Minutes()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosYereim3Point05Degrees
This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as the sun's position 3.05° above the horizon around the equinox / equilux, its position 18 minutes or 3/4 of an 24minute mil before sunset. According to the Yereim, bain hashmashos starts 3/4 of a mil before sunset and tzais or nightfall starts at sunset. Note that lechumra (of about 14 seconds) a refraction value of 0.5166° as opposed to the traditional 0.566° is used. This is more inline with the actual refraction in Eretz Yisrael and is brought down by Rabbi Yedidya Manet in his Zmanei Halacha Lemaâ€™aseh (p. 11). That is the first source that I am aware of that calculates degreebased Yereim zmanim. The 0.5166° refraction is also used by the Luach Itim Lebinah. Calculating the Yereim's bain hashmashos using 18minute based degrees is also suggested in the upcoming 8th edition of the zmanim Kehilchasam. For more details, see the article The Yereimâ€™s Bein Hashmashos. Returns:
 the
Date
of the sun's position 3.05° minutes before sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 recalculate based on equinox/equilux

getBainHasmashosYereim3Point05Degrees
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosYereim3Point05Degrees()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosYereim16Point875Minutes
This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as 16.875 minutes or 3/4 of a 22.5minute mil before sunset. According to the Yereim, bain hashmashos starts 3/4 of a mil before sunset and tzais or nightfall starts at sunset. Returns:
 the
Date
of 16.875 minutes before sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getBainHasmashosYereim16Point875Minutes
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosYereim16Point875Minutes()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosYereim2Point8Degrees
This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as the sun's position 2.8° above the horizon around the equinox / equilux, its position 16.875 minutes or 3/4 of an 18minute mil before sunset. According to the Yereim, bain hashmashos starts 3/4 of a mil before sunset and tzais or nightfall starts at sunset. Details, including how the degrees were calculated can be seen in the documentation ofgetBainHashmashosYereim3Point05Degrees()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the sun's position 2.8° minutes before sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getBainHasmashosYereim2Point8Degrees
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosYereim2Point8Degrees()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosYereim13Point5Minutes
This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos (twilight) according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as 13.5 minutes or 3/4 of an 18minute mil before sunset. According to the Yereim, bain hashmashos starts 3/4 of a mil before sunset and tzais or nightfall starts at sunset. Returns:
 the
Date
of 13.5 minutes before sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getBainHasmashosYereim13Point5Minutes
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosYereim13Point5Minutes()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getBainHashmashosYereim2Point1Degrees
This method returns the beginning of bain hashmashos according to the Yereim (Rabbi Eliezer of Metz) calculated as the sun's position 2.1° above the horizon around the equinox / equilux in Yerushalayim, its position 13.5 minutes or 3/4 of an 18minute mil before sunset. According to the Yereim, bain hashmashos starts 3/4 of a mil before sunset and tzais or nightfall starts at sunset. Details, including how the degrees were calculated can be seen in the documentation ofgetBainHashmashosYereim3Point05Degrees()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the sun's position 2.1° minutes before sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getBainHasmashosYereim2Point1Degrees
Deprecated.Misspelled method name that should begetBainHashmashosYereim2Point1Degrees()
. Returns:
 the properly spelled version.

getTzaisGeonim3Point7Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at3.7°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 3.7° below sea level.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim3Point8Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at3.8°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 3.8° below sea level.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim5Point95Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at5.95°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 5.95° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim3Point65Degrees
Deprecated.This will be removed in v3.0.0 since calculations show that this time is earlier than 13.5 minutes at the around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a mil based on an 18minute mil, or 13.5 minutes. It is the sun's position at3.65°
below the western horizon. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 3.65° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim3Point676Degrees
Deprecated.This will be removed in v3.0.0 since calculations show that this time is earlier than 13.5 minutes at the around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem.This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a mil based on an 18minute mil, or 13.5 minutes. It is the sun's position at3.676°
below the western horizon based on the calculations of Stanley Fishkind. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 3.676° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim4Point61Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a mil based on a 24minute mil, or 18 minutes. It is the sun's position at4.61°
below the western horizon. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 4.61° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim4Point37Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a mil, based on a 22.5minute mil, or 16 7/8 minutes. It is the sun's position at4.37°
below the western horizon. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 4.37° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim5Point88Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a 24minute mil, based on a mil being 24 minutes, and is calculated as 18 + 2 + 4 for a total of 24 minutes. It is the sun's position at5.88°
below the western horizon. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 5.88° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 Additional detailed documentation needed.

getTzaisGeonim4Point8Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 3/4 of a mil based on the sun's position at4.8°
below the western horizon. This is based on Rabbi Leo Levi's calculations. This is a very early zman and should not be relied on without Rabbinical guidance. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 4.8° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 Additional documentation needed.

getTzaisGeonim6Point45Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim as calculated by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Tucazinsky. It is based on of the position of the sun no later than31 minutes
after sunset in Jerusalem the height of the summer solstice and is 28 minutes after shkiah around the equinox / equilux. This computes to 6.45° below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 6.45° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 Additional documentation details needed.

getTzaisGeonim7Point083Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated when the sun's position7.083° (or 7° 5â€²
) below the western horizon. This is often referred to as 7°5' or 7° and 5 minutes. This calculation is based on the observation of 3 mediumsized stars by Dr. Baruch (Berthold) Cohn in his luach Tabellen enthaltend die Zeitangaben fÃ¼r den Beginn der Nacht und des Tages fÃ¼r die Breitengrade + 66 bis 38 published in Strasbourg, France in 1899. This calendar was very popular in Europe, and many other calendars based their time on it. Rav Dovid Tzvi Hoffman in his Sh"Ut Melamed Leho'il in an exchange of letters with Baruch Cohn in Orach Chaim 30 agreed to this zman (page 36), as did the Sh"Ut Bnei Tziyon and the Tenuvas Sadeh. It is very close to the time of the Mekor Chesed of the Sefer chasidim. It is close to the position of the sun 30 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem around the equinox / equilux, but not Exactly. The actual position of the sun 30 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem at the equilux is 7.205° and 7.199° at the equinox. See Hazmanim Bahalacha vol 2, pages 520521 for more details. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 7.083° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim7Point67Degrees
This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 45 minutes after sunset during the summer solstice in New York, when the neshef (twilight) is the longest. The sun's position at this time computes to7.75°
below the western horizon. See Igros Moshe Even Haezer 4, Ch. 4 (regarding tzais for krias Shema). It is also mentioned in Rabbi Heber's Shaarei Zmanim on in chapter 10 (page 87) and chapter 12 (page 108). Also see the time of 45 minutes in Rabbi Simcha Bunim Cohen's The radiance of Shabbos as the earliest zman for New York. This zman is also listed in the Divrei Shalom Vol. III, chapter 75, and Bais Av"i Vol. III, chapter 117. This zman is also listed in the Divrei Shalom etc. chapter 177 (FIXME  could not be located). Since this zman depends on the level of light, Rabbi Yaakov Shakow presented this degreebased calculation to Rabbi Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who agreed to it. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 7.67° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 add hyperlinks to source of Divrei Shalom once it is located.

getTzaisGeonim8Point5Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated at the sun's position at8.5°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 8.5° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisGeonim9Point3Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the calculations used in the Luach Itim Lebinah as the stringent time for tzais. It is calculated at the sun's position at9.3°
below the western horizon. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 9.3° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getTzaisGeonim9Point75Degrees
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Geonim calculated as 60 minutes after sunset around the equinox / equilux, the day that a solar hour is 60 minutes in New York. The sun's position at this time computes to9.75°
below the western horizon. This is the opinion of Rabbi Eliyahu Henkin. This also follows the opinion of Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky. Rabbi Yaakov Shakow presented these degreebased times to Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky who agreed to them. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time when the sun is 9.75° below sea level. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 recalculate based on equinox / equilux.

getTzais60
This method returns the tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Chavas Yair and Divrei Malkiel that the time to walk the distance of a mil is 15 minutes, for a total of 60 minutes for 4 mil aftersea level sunset
. See detailed documentation explaining the 60 minute concept atgetAlos60()
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing 60 minutes after sea level sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisAteretTorah
This method returns tzais usually calculated as 40 minutes (configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) after sunset. Please note that Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah who uses this time, does so only for calculating various other zmanei hayom such as Sof Zman Krias Shema and Plag Hamincha. His calendars do not publish a zman for Tzais. It should also be noted that Chacham HarariRaful provided a 25 minute zman for Israel. This API uses 40 minutes year round in any place on the globe by default. This offset can be changed by callingsetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing 40 minutes (configurable viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
) after sea level sunset. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAteretTorahSunsetOffset
Returns the offset in minutes after sunset used to calculate tzais based on the calculations of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah calculations. The default value is 40 minutes. This affects most zmanim, since almost all zmanim use subset as part of their calculation. Returns:
 the number of minutes after sunset for Tzait.
 See Also:

setAteretTorahSunsetOffset
Allows setting the offset in minutes after sunset for the Ateret Torah zmanim. The default if unset is 40 minutes. Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah uses 40 minutes globally with the exception of Israel where a 25minute offset is used. This 40 minute (or any other) offset can be overridden by this method. This offset impacts all Ateret Torah zmanim. Parameters:
ateretTorahSunsetOffset
 the number of minutes after sunset to use as an offset for the Ateret Torah tzais See Also:

getSofZmanShmaAteretTorah
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afteralos 72 zmaniyos
. Note: Based on this calculation chatzos will not be at midday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaAteretTorah
This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 4 *shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afteralos 72 zmaniyos
. Note: Based on this calculation chatzos will not be at midday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilahAteretTorah
Deprecated.misspelled method name (all other methods spell tfila without an H) to be removed in 3.0.0. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema based on this calculation. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaGedolaAteretTorah
This method returns the time of mincha gedola based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 6.5solar hours
after alos. The calculation used is 6.5 *getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaKetanaAteretTorah
This method returns the time of mincha ketana based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha according to the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 9.5solar hours
afteralos
. The calculation used is 9.5 *getShaahZmanisAteretTorah()
afteralos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHaminchaAteretTorah
This method returns the time of plag hamincha based on the calculation of Chacham Yosef HarariRaful of Yeshivat Ateret Torah, that the day starts1/10th of the day
before sunrise and is usually calculated as ending40 minutes after sunset
(configurable to any offset viasetAteretTorahSunsetOffset(double)
). shaos zmaniyos are calculated based on this day and added toalos
to reach this time. This time is 10.75shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afterdawn
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the plag. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, a null will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais72Zmanis
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 72 minutes zmaniyos, or 1/10th of the day aftersea level sunset
. This is the way that the Minchas Cohen in Ma'amar 2:4 calculates Rebbeinu Tam's time of tzeis. It should be noted that this calculation results in the shortest time from sunset to tzais being during the winter solstice, the longest at the summer solstice and 72 clock minutes at the equinox. This does not match reality, since there is no direct relationship between the length of the day and twilight. The shortest twilight is during the equinox, the longest is during the summer solstice, and in the winter with the shortest daylight, the twilight period is longer than during the equinoxes. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getZmanisBasedOffset
A utility method to return alos (dawn) or tzais (dusk) based on a fractional day offset. Parameters:
hours
 the number of shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) before sunrise or after sunset that defines dawn or dusk. If a negative number is passed in, it will return the time of alos (dawn) (subtracting the time from sunrise) and if a positive number is passed in, it will return the time of tzais (dusk) (adding the time to sunset). If 0 is passed in, anull
will be returned (since we can't tell if it is sunrise or sunset based). Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. Anull
will also be returned if 0 is passed in, since we can't tell if it is sunrise or sunset based. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getTzais90Zmanis
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 90 minutes zmaniyos or 1/8th of the day aftersea level sunset
. This time is known in Yiddish as the achtel (an eighth) zman. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais96Zmanis
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated using 96 minutes zmaniyos or 1/7.5 of the day aftersea level sunset
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais90
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 90 minutes after sea level sunset. This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of the Magen Avraham that the time to walk the distance of a mil according to the Rambam's opinion is 18 minutes, for a total of 90 minutes based on the opinion of Ula who calculated tzais as 5 mil after sea level shkiah (sunset). A similar calculationgetTzais19Point8Degrees()
uses solar position calculations based on this time. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais120
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time, and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns tzais (nightfall) based on the calculations of Rav Chaim Naeh that the time to walk the distance of a mil according to the Rambam's opinion is 2/5 of an hour (24 minutes) for a total of 120 minutes based on the opinion of Ula who calculated tzais as 5 mil after sea level shkiah (sunset). A similar calculationgetTzais26Degrees()
uses degreebased calculations based on this 120 minute calculation. Since the zman is extremely late and at a point that is long past the 18° point where the darkest point is reached, it should only be used lechumra, such as delaying the start of nighttime mitzvos. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
. documentation.  See Also:

getTzais120Zmanis
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time, and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns tzais (dusk) calculated using 120 minutes zmaniyos aftersea level sunset
. Since the zman is extremely late and at a time when the sun is well below the 18° point (scientifically the darkest point) in most places on the globe, it should only be used lechumra, such as delaying the start of nighttime mitzvos. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais16Point1Degrees
This calculates the time of tzais at the point when the sun is 16.1° below the horizon. This is the sun's dip below the horizon 72 minutes after sunset according Rabbeinu Tam's calculation of tzais around the equinox / equilux in Jerusalem. The question of equinox VS equilux is complex, with Rabbi Meir Posen in the Ohr Meir of the opinion that the equilux should be used. See Yisrael Vehazmanim vol I, 34:1:4. Rabbi Yedidya Manet in his Zmanei Halacha Lema'aseh (4th edition part 2, pages and 22 and 24) and Rabbi Yonah Metzbuch (in a letter published by Rabbi Manet) are of the opinion that the astronomical equinox should be used. The difference adds up to about 9 seconds, too trivial to make much of a difference. For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos16Point1Degrees()
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais26Degrees
Deprecated.This method should be used lechumra only since it returns a very late time, and if used lekula can result in chillul Shabbos etc. There is no current plan to remove this method from the API, and this deprecation is intended to alert developers of the danger of using it.This method should be used lechumra only and returns tzais based on when the sun is 26° below the horizon.For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos26Degrees()
. Since the zman is extremely late and at a point when it is long past the 18° point where the darkest point is reached, it should only be used lechumra such as delaying the start of nighttime mitzvos. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais18Degrees
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos18Degrees()
 Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais19Point8Degrees
For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos19Point8Degrees()
 Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais96
A method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 96 minutes after sea level sunset. For information on how this is calculated see the comments ongetAlos96()
. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getFixedLocalChatzos
A method that returns the local time for fixed chatzos. This time is noon and midnight adjusted from standard time to account for the local latitude. The 360° of the globe divided by 24 calculates to 15° per hour with 4 minutes per degree, so at a longitude of 0 , 15, 30 etc... Chatzos is at exactly 12:00 noon. This is the time of chatzos according to the Aruch Hashulchan in Orach Chaim 233:14 and Rabbi Moshe Feinstein in Igros Moshe Orach Chaim 1:24 and 2:20. Lakewood, N.J., with a longitude of 74.222, is 0.778 away from the closest multiple of 15 at 75°. This is multiplied by 4 to yield 3 minutes and 7 seconds for a chatzos of 11:56:53. This method is not tied to the theoretical 15° timezones, but will adjust to the actual timezone and Daylight saving time. Returns:
 the Date representing the local chatzos
 See Also:

getSofZmanShmaFixedLocal
Deprecated.This method of calculating sof zman Shma is considered a mistaken understanding of the proper calculation of this zman in the opinion of Rav Yitzchak Silber's Sha'aos Shavos Bahalacha. On pages 316318 he discusses Rav Yisrael Harfenes's calculations and points to his seeming agreement that using fixed local chatzos as the focal point is problematic. See Yisrael Vehazmanim page 57. While the Yisrael Vehazmanim mentions this issue in vol. 1, it was not corrected in the calculations in vol. 3 and other parts of the sefer. A competent rabbinical authority should be consulted before using this zman. Instead, the use ofgetSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos()
should be used to calculate sof zman Tfila using 3 fixed clock hours. This will likely be removed in v3.0.A method that returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning) calculated as 3 clock hours beforegetFixedLocalChatzos()
. Note that there are opinions brought down in Yisrael Vehazmanim page 57 and Rav Yitzchak Silber's Shaos Shavos Bahalacha that this calculation is a mistake and regular chatzos should be used for clockhour calculations as opposed to fixed local chatzos. According to these opinions it should be 3 clock hours before regular chatzos as calculated ingetSofZmanShma3HoursBeforeChatzos()
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema calculated as 3 clock hours beforegetFixedLocalChatzos()
.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaFixedLocal
Deprecated.This method of calculating sof zman Tfila is considered a mistaken understanding of the proper calculation of this zman in the opinion of Rav Yitzchak Silber's Sha'aos Shavos Bahalacha. On pages 316318 he discusses Rav Yisrael Harfenes's calculations and points to his seeming agreement that using fixed local chatzos as the focal point is problematic. See Yisrael Vehazmanim page 57. While the Yisrael Vehazmanim mentions this issue in vol. 1, it was not corrected in the calculations in vol. 3 and other parts of the sefer. A competent rabbinical authority should be consulted before using this zman. Instead, the use ofgetSofZmanTfila2HoursBeforeChatzos()
should be used to calculate sof zman Tfila using 2 fixed clock hours. This will likely be removed in v3.0.This method returns the latest zman tfila (time to recite the morning prayers) calculated as 2 hours beforegetFixedLocalChatzos()
. See the documentation ongetSofZmanShmaFixedLocal()
showing differing opinions on how the zman is calculated. According to many opinionsgetSofZmanTfila2HoursBeforeChatzos()
should be used as opposed to this zman. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfila.  See Also:

getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos
Returns the latest time of Kidush Levana according to the Maharil's opinion that it is calculated as halfway between molad and molad. This adds half the 29 days, 12 hours and 793 chalakim time between molad and molad (14 days, 18 hours, 22 minutes and 666 milliseconds) to the month's molad. If the time of sof zman Kiddush Levana occurs during the day (between the alos and tzais passed in as parameters), it returns the alos passed in. If anull
alos or tzais are passed to this method, the nondaytime adjusted time will be returned. Parameters:
alos
 the beginning of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be alos. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made.tzais
 the end of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be alos. If either the alos or tzais parameter are null, no daytime adjustment will be made. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment halfway between molad and molad. If the time occurs between
alos and tzais, alos will be returned. If the zman will not occur on this day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getMoladBasedTime
Returns the Date of the molad based time if it occurs on the current date. Since Kiddush Levana can only be said during the day, there are parameters to limit it to between alos and tzais. If the time occurs between alos and tzais, tzais will be returned. Parameters:
moladBasedTime
 the molad based time such as molad, tchilas and sof zman Kiddush Levanaalos
 optional start of day to limit molad times to the end of the night before or beginning of the next night. Ignored if either alos or tzais are null.tzais
 optional end of day to limit molad times to the end of the night before or beginning of the next night. Ignored if either tzais or alos are nulltechila
 is it the start of Kiddush Levana time or the end? If it is start roll it to the next tzais, and and if it is the end, return the end of the previous night (alos passed in). Ignored if either alos or tzais are null. Returns:
 the molad based time. If the zman does not occur during the current date,
null
will be returned.

getSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana according to the Maharil's opinion that it is calculated as halfway between molad and molad. This adds half the 29 days, 12 hours and 793 chalakim time between molad and molad (14 days, 18 hours, 22 minutes and 666 milliseconds) to the month's molad. The sof zman Kiddush Levana will be returned even if it occurs during the day. To limit the time to between tzais and alos, seegetSofZmanKidushLevanaBetweenMoldos(Date, Date)
. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment halfway between molad and molad. If the time occurs between
alos and tzais, alos will be returned. If the zman will not occur on this
day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana calculated as 15 days after the molad. This is the opinion brought down in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 426). It should be noted that some opinions hold that the Rema who brings down the opinion of the Maharil's of calculatinghalf way between molad and molad
is of the opinion that the Mechaber agrees to his opinion. Also see the Aruch Hashulchan. For additional details on the subject, see Rabbi Dovid Heber's very detailed writeup in Siman Daled (chapter 4) of Shaarei Zmanim. If the time of sof zman Kiddush Levana occurs during the day (between the alos and tzais passed in as parameters), it returns the alos passed in. If a null alos or tzais are passed to this method, the nondaytime adjusted time will be returned. Parameters:
alos
 the beginning of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be alos. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made.tzais
 the end of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be alos. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 15 days after the molad. If the time occurs between alos and
tzais, alos will be returned. If the zman will not occur on this day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getSofZmanKidushLevana15Days
Returns the latest time of Kiddush Levana calculated as 15 days after the molad. This is the opinion of the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 426). It should be noted that some opinions hold that the Rema who brings down the opinion of the Maharil's of calculatinghalf way between molad and molad
is of the opinion that the Mechaber agrees to his opinion. Also see the Aruch Hashulchan. For additional details on the subject, See Rabbi Dovid Heber's very detailed writeup in Siman Daled (chapter 4) of Shaarei Zmanim. The sof zman Kiddush Levana will be returned even if it occurs during the day. To limit the time to between tzais and alos, seegetSofZmanKidushLevana15Days(Date, Date)
. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 15 days after the molad. If the time occurs between
alos and tzais, alos will be returned. If the zman will not occur on this day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to Rabbeinu Yonah's opinion that it can be said 3 days after the molad. The time will be returned even if it occurs during the day when Kiddush Levana can't be said. UsegetTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days(Date, Date)
if you want to limit the time to night hours. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 3 days after the molad. If the zman will not occur on this day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getTchilasZmanKidushLevana3Days
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to Rabbeinu Yonah's opinion that it can be said 3 days after the molad. If the time of tchilas zman Kiddush Levana occurs during the day (between alos and tzais passed to this method) it will return the following tzais. If null is passed for either alos or tzais, the actual tchilas zman Kiddush Levana will be returned, regardless of if it is during the day or not. Parameters:
alos
 the beginning of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be tzais. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made.tzais
 the end of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be tzais. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 3 days after the molad. If the time occurs between alos and
tzais, tzais will be returned. If the zman will not occur on this day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getZmanMolad
Returns the point in time of Molad as aDate
Object. For the traditional day of week, hour, minute and chalakim,JewishCalendar.getMoladAsDate()
and the not yet completedHebrewDateFormatter
that will have formatting for this. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment of the molad. If the molad does not occur on this day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getMidnightLastNight
Used by Molad based zmanim to determine if zmanim occur during the current day. Returns:
 previous midnight
 See Also:

getMidnightTonight
Used by Molad based zmanim to determine if zmanim occur during the current day. Returns:
 following midnight
 See Also:

getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to the opinions that it should not be said until 7 days after the molad. If the time of tchilas zman Kiddush Levana occurs during the day (betweenalos
andtzais
) it return the next tzais. Parameters:
alos
 the beginning of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be tzais. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made.tzais
 the end of the Jewish day. If Kidush Levana occurs during the day (starting at alos and ending at tzais), the time returned will be tzais. If either the alos or tzais parameters are null, no daytime adjustment will be made. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 7 days after the molad. If the time occurs between alos and
tzais, tzais will be returned. If the zman will not occur on this day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days
Returns the earliest time of Kiddush Levana according to the opinions that it should not be said until 7 days after the molad. The time will be returned even if it occurs during the day when Kiddush Levana can't be recited. UsegetTchilasZmanKidushLevana7Days(Date, Date)
if you want to limit the time to night hours. Returns:
 the Date representing the moment 7 days after the molad regardless of it is day or night. If the zman
will not occur on this day, a
null
will be returned.  See Also:

getSofZmanAchilasChametzGRA
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of theGRA. This time is identical to theSof zman tfilah GRA
and is provided as a convenience method for those who are unaware how this zman is calculated. This time is 4 hours into the day based on the opinion of the GRA that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 4 *ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
aftersea level sunrise
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA72Minutes
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is identical to theSof zman tfilah MGA 72 minutes
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisMGA()
afterdawn
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time of eating chametz. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA72MinutesZmanis
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72 zmaniyos
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is identical to theSof zman tfilah MGA 72 minutes zmanis
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes zmanis before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes zmanis after sunset. This returns the time of 4 *getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time of eating chametz. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSofZmanAchilasChametzMGA16Point1Degrees
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of theMagen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
. This time is 4shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 16.1° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 4getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afterdawn
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time of eating chametz. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSofZmanBiurChametzGRA
FIXME adjust for synchronous This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the GRA. This time is 5 hours into the day based on the opinion of the GRA that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 5 *ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisGra()
aftersea level sunrise
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA72Minutes
FIXME adjust for synchronous This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes beforesunrise
. This time is 5shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes after sunset. This returns the time of 5 *ZmanimCalendar.getShaahZmanisMGA()
afterdawn
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA72MinutesZmanis
FIXME adjust for synchronous This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being72
minutes zmanis beforesunrise
. This time is 5shaos zmaniyos
(temporal hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from adawn
of 72 minutes zmanis before sunrise tonightfall
of 72 minutes zmanis after sunset. This returns the time of 5 *getShaahZmanis72MinutesZmanis()
afterdawn
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSofZmanBiurChametzMGA16Point1Degrees
FIXME adjust for synchronous This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) based on alos being16.1°
beforesunrise
. This time is 5shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afterdawn
based on the opinion of the MGA that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall with both being 16.1° below sunrise or sunset. This returns the time of 5getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afterdawn
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSunriseBaalHatanya
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's netz amiti (sunrise) withoutelevation adjustment
. This forms the base for the Baal Hatanya's dawnbased calculations that are calculated as a dip below the horizon before sunrise. According to the Baal Hatanya, netz amiti, or true (halachic) sunrise, is when the top of the sun's disk is visible at an elevation similar to the mountains of Eretz Yisrael. The time is calculated as the point at which the center of the sun's disk is 1.583° below the horizon. This degreebased calculation can be found in Rabbi Shalom DovBer Levine's commentary on The Baal Hatanya's Seder Hachnasas Shabbos. From an elevation of 546 meters, the top of Har Hacarmel, the sun disappears when it is 1° 35' or 1.583° below the sea level horizon. This in turn is based on the Gemara Shabbos 35a. There are other opinions brought down by Rabbi Levine, including Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Feigelstock who calculates it as the degrees below the horizon 4 minutes after sunset in Yerushalayim (on the equinox). That is brought down as 1.583°. This is identical to the 1° 35' zman and is probably a typo and should be 1.683°. These calculations are used by most Chabad calendars that use the Baal Hatanya's zmanim. See About Our Zmanim Calculations @ Chabad.org. Note: netz amiti is used only for calculating certain zmanim, and is intentionally unpublished. For practical purposes, daytime mitzvos like shofar and lulav should not be done until after the published time for netz / sunrise. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the exact sea level netz amiti (sunrise) time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of the page.  See Also:

getSunsetBaalHatanya
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's shkiah amiti (sunset) withoutelevation adjustment
. This forms the base for the Baal Hatanya's duskbased calculations that are calculated as a dip below the horizon after sunset. According to the Baal Hatanya, shkiah amiti, true (halachic) sunset, is when the top of the sun's disk disappears from view at an elevation similar to the mountains of Eretz Yisrael. This time is calculated as the point at which the center of the sun's disk is 1.583 degrees below the horizon. Note: shkiah amiti is used only for calculating certain zmanim, and is intentionally unpublished. For practical purposes, all daytime mitzvos should be completed before the published time for shkiah / sunset. For further explanation of the calculations used for the Baal Hatanya's zmanim in this library, see About Our Zmanim Calculations @ Chabad.org. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the exact sea level shkiah amiti (sunset) time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya
A method that returns the Baal Hatanya's a shaah zmanis (temporal hour
). This forms the base for the Baal Hatanya's day based calculations that are calculated as a 1.583° dip below the horizon after sunset. According to the Baal Hatanya, shkiah amiti, true (halachic) sunset, is when the top of the sun's disk disappears from view at an elevation similar to the mountains of Eretz Yisrael. This time is calculated as the point at which the center of the sun's disk is 1.583 degrees below the horizon. A method that returns a shaah zmanis (temporal hour
) calculated based on the Baal Hatanya's netz amiti and shkiah amiti using a dip of 1.583° below the sea level horizon. This calculation divides the day based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day runs fromnetz amiti
toshkiah amiti
. The calculations are based on a day fromsea level netz amiti
tosea level shkiah amiti
. The day is split into 12 equal parts with each one being a shaah zmanis. This method is similar toAstronomicalCalendar.getTemporalHour()
, but all calculations are based on a sea level sunrise and sunset. Returns:
 the
long
millisecond length of a shaah zmanis calculated fromnetz amiti (sunrise)
toshkiah amiti ("real" sunset)
. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set,Long.MIN_VALUE
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getAlosBaalHatanya
Returns the Baal Hatanya's alos (dawn) calculated as the time when the sun is 16.9° below the easterngeometric horizon
beforesunrise
. For more information the source of 16.9° seeZENITH_16_POINT_9
. Returns:
 The
Date
of dawn. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaBaalHatanya
This method returns the latest zman krias shema (time to recite Shema in the morning). This time is 3shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) afternetz amiti (sunrise)
based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 3 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti (sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman shema according to the Baal Hatanya. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaBaalHatanya
This method returns the latest zman tfilah (time to recite the morning prayers). This time is 4 hours into the day based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 4 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti (sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman tfilah. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanAchilasChametzBaalHatanya
This method returns the latest time one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. This time is identical to theSof zman tfilah Baal Hatanya
. This time is 4 hours into the day based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 4getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti (sunrise)
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
one is allowed eating chametz on Erev Pesach. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getSofZmanBiurChametzBaalHatanya
This method returns the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach according to the opinion of the Baal Hatanya. This time is 5 hours into the day based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 5 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti (sunrise)
. If it is not erev Pesach, a null will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest time for burning chametz on Erev Pesach. If it is not erev Pesach or the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 in v 3.0.0 enable the calendar check for erev pesach and return
null
in all other cases.

getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya
This method returns the time of mincha gedola. Mincha gedola is the earliest time one can pray mincha. The Rambam is of the opinion that it is better to delay mincha untilmincha ketana
while the Ra"sh, Tur, GRA and others are of the opinion that mincha can be prayed lechatchila starting at mincha gedola. This is calculated as 6.5sea level solar hours
afternetz amiti (sunrise)
. This calculation is based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 6.5 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti ("real" sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola according to the Baal Hatanya. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
 TODO:
 Consider adjusting this to calculate the time as 30 clock or zmaniyos minutes after either
astronomical chatzos
orchatzos as half a day
forcalculators
that support it, based onZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzos()
.

getMinchaGedolaBaalHatanyaGreaterThan30
FIXME synchronous This is a convenience method that returns the later ofgetMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
. In the winter when 1/2 of ashaah zmanis
is less than 30 minutesgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
will be returned, otherwisegetMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
will be returned. Returns:
 the
Date
of the later ofgetMinchaGedolaBaalHatanya()
andgetMinchaGedola30Minutes()
. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  TODO:
 Consider adjusting this to calculate the time as 30 clock or zmaniyos minutes after either
astronomical chatzos
orchatzos as half a day
forcalculators
that support it, based onZmanimCalendar.isUseAstronomicalChatzos()
.

getMinchaKetanaBaalHatanya
This method returns the time of mincha ketana. This is the preferred earliest time to pray mincha in the opinion of the Rambam and others. For more information on this see the documentation onmincha gedola
. This is calculated as 9.5sea level solar hours
afternetz amiti (sunrise)
. This calculation is calculated based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 9.5 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti (sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHaminchaBaalHatanya
This method returns the time of plag hamincha. This is calculated as 10.75 hours after sunrise. This calculation is based on the opinion of the Baal Hatanya that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset. This returns the time 10.75 *getShaahZmanisBaalHatanya()
afternetz amiti (sunrise)
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of plag hamincha. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzaisBaalHatanya
A method that returns tzais (nightfall) when the sun is 6° below the western geometric horizon (90°) aftersunset
. For information on the source of this calculation seeZENITH_6_DEGREES
. Returns:
 The
Date
of nightfall. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getFixedLocalChatzosBasedZmanim
@Deprecated public Date getFixedLocalChatzosBasedZmanim(Date startOfHalfDay, Date endOfHalfDay, double hours) Deprecated.This method will be replaced in v3.0.0 by the more genericZmanimCalendar.getHalfDayBasedZman(Date, Date, double)
method.A utility method to calculate zmanim based on Rav Moshe Feinstein as calculated in MTJ, Yeshiva of Staten Island, and Camp Yeshiva of Staten Island. The day is split in two, from alos / sunrise to fixed local chatzos, and the second half of the day, from fixed local chatzos to sunset / tzais. Morning based times are calculated based on the first 6 hours, and afternoon times based on the second half of the day. Parameters:
startOfHalfDay
 The start of the half day. This would be alos or sunrise for morning based times and fixed local chatzos for the second half of the day.endOfHalfDay
 The end of the half day. This would be fixed local chatzos for morning based times and sunset or tzais for afternoon based times.hours
 the number of hours to offset the beginning of the first or second half of the day Returns:
 the
Date
of the zman based on calculation of the first or second half of the day. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA18DegreesToFixedLocalChatzos
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall, but calculated using the first half of the day only. The half a day starts at alos defined as18°
and ends atfixed local chatzos
. Sof Zman Shema is 3 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) after alos or half of this halfday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA16Point1DegreesToFixedLocalChatzos
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall, but calculated using the first half of the day only. The half a day starts at alos defined as16.1°
and ends atfixed local chatzos
. Sof Zman Shema is 3 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) after this alos or half of this halfday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA90MinutesToFixedLocalChatzos
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall, but calculated using the first half of the day only. The half a day starts at alos defined as90 minutes before sunrise
and ends atfixed local chatzos
. Sof Zman Shema is 3 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) after this alos or half of this halfday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaMGA72MinutesToFixedLocalChatzos
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the Magen Avraham (MGA) that the day is calculated from dawn to nightfall, but calculated using the first half of the day only. The half a day starts at alos defined as72 minutes before sunrise
and ends atfixed local chatzos
. Sof Zman Shema is 3 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) after this alos or half of this halfday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanShmaGRASunriseToFixedLocalChatzos
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman krias shema (latest time to recite Shema in the morning) according to the opinion of the GRA that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset, but calculated using the first half of the day only. The half a day starts atsunrise
and ends atfixed local chatzos
. Sof zman Shema is 3 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) after sunrise or half of this halfday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSofZmanTfilaGRASunriseToFixedLocalChatzos
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of sof zman tfila (zman tfilah (the latest time to recite the morning prayers)) according to the opinion of the GRA that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset, but calculated using the first half of the day only. The half a day starts atsunrise
and ends atfixed local chatzos
. Sof zman tefila is 4 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) after sunrise or 2/3 of this halfday. Returns:
 the
Date
of the latest zman krias shema. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaGedolaGRAFixedLocalChatzos30Minutes
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of mincha gedola, the earliest time one can pray mincha GRAthat is 30 minutes afterfixed local chatzos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getMinchaKetanaGRAFixedLocalChatzosToSunset
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of mincha ketana (the preferred time to recite the mincha prayers according to the opinion of the Rambam and others) calculated according to the GRA that is 3.5 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) afterfixed local chatzos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getPlagHaminchaGRAFixedLocalChatzosToSunset
This method returns Rav Moshe Feinstein's opinion of the calculation of plag hamincha. This method returns plag hamincha calculated according to the GRA that the day ends at sunset and is 4.75 shaos zmaniyos (solar hours) afterfixed local chatzos
. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of mincha gedola. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getTzais50
Method to return tzais (dusk) calculated as 50 minutes after sea level sunset. This method returns tzais (nightfall) based on the opinion of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein for the New York area. This time should not be used for latitudes other than ones similar to the latitude of the NY area. Returns:
 the
Date
representing the time. If the calculation can't be computed such as in the Arctic Circle where there is at least one day a year where the sun does not rise, and one where it does not set, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.

getSamuchLeMinchaKetanaGRA
A method for calculating samuch lemincha ketana, / near mincha ketana time that is half an hour beforeZmanimCalendar.getMinchaKetana()
or is 9 *shaos zmaniyos
(solar hours) aftersunrise
orsea level sunrise
(depending on theZmanimCalendar.isUseElevation()
setting), calculated according to the GRA using a day starting at sunrise and ending at sunset. This is the time that eating or other activity can't begin prior to praying mincha. The calculation used is 9 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afteralos 16.1°
. See the Mechaber and Mishna Berurah 232 and 249:2. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of samuch lemincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSamuchLeMinchaKetana16Point1Degrees
A method for calculating samuch lemincha ketana, / near mincha ketana time that is half an hour beforegetMinchaGedola16Point1Degrees()
or 9 * shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) after the start of the day, calculated using a day starting and ending 16.1° below the horizon. This is the time that eating or other activity can't begin prior to praying mincha. The calculation used is 9 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afteralos 16.1°
. See the Mechaber and Mishna Berurah 232 and 249:2. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of samuch lemincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:

getSamuchLeMinchaKetana72Minutes
A method for calculating samuch lemincha ketana, / near mincha ketana time that is half an hour beforegetMinchaKetana72Minutes()
or 9 * shaos zmaniyos (temporal hours) after the start of the day, calculated using a day starting 72 minutes before sunrise and ending 72 minutes after sunset. This is the time that eating or other activity can't begin prior to praying mincha. The calculation used is 9 *getShaahZmanis16Point1Degrees()
afteralos 16.1°
. See the Mechaber and Mishna Berurah 232 and 249:2. Returns:
 the
Date
of the time of samuch lemincha ketana. If the calculation can't be computed such as northern and southern locations even south of the Arctic Circle and north of the Antarctic Circle where the sun may not reach low enough below the horizon for this calculation, anull
will be returned. See detailed explanation on top of theAstronomicalCalendar
documentation.  See Also:
