The Yereim’s Bein Hashmashos

Rabbi Eliezer of Metz (known by his acronym The רא״ם Re’em), a disciple of Rabbeinu Tam, in his Sefer Yereim ספר יראים chapter 274, states that bein hashmashos starts the time it takes to walk three quarters of a mil before sunset, and ends at sunset.

פירוש משתשקע החמה דר׳ יהודה ור׳ נחמיה משמתחלת לשקוע שנוטה מעט ומכירים העולם שרוצה להכנס בעובי הרקיע … ולשון משתשקע משמע הקדמה … וכן נראה לי עיקר דמשתשקע החמה הוא קודם שקיעת החמה דעולא ולא כדברי רבינו יעקב … ואין להקפיד על צאת הככבים … אע״ף שאין הכוכבים נראים … שלילה גמור הוא כפירושי.

The Yereim’s opinion is brought down by other Rishonim including the Mordechai and Rav Alexander Suslin HaKohen in his Sefer Agudah. The Yereim is mentioned by the Bach as a reason for the minhag of starting Shabbos early. The Yereim’s times are not brought down by the poskim lehalacha.

The Time to Walk a Mil

The time to walk a mil is based on the Gemara in Pesachim 93b – 94a. The time ranges in the poskim and includes 18, 22.5 and 24 minutes. Three quarters of these mil times would be 13.5, 16.875 and 18 minutes. It should be noted that the Yereim is of the opinion that a mil is 24 minutes. The above mentioned Mordechai who quoted the Yereim is also of the same opinion. We will hopefully discuss in detail the various opinions on the time to walk a mil in a future article.

The Addition of the Yereim’s Times to the KosherJava Zmanim Library

As of the 2.1.0 release of the KosherJava zmanim library, the Yereim’s bein hashmashos times have been added to the KosherJava zmanim library/API. There are six variants of these zmanim that were added. These include the three exact minute offsets mentioned above, as well as the conversion of these three times to degrees (elevation angle, or solar zenith angle). The only prior degree based time for the Yereim that I am aware of is in Rabbi Yedidya Manet’s Zmanei Halacha Lema’aseh (זמני ההלכה למעשה מהרב ידידיה מנת). The Zmanei Halacha Lema’aseh charts calculate bein hashmashos in degrees based on the 18 minute (3/4 of a 24 minute mil, see p. 27 in the 4th ed. published in 2005), but does not clarify the degrees used. At Rabbi Yaakov Shakow’s recommendation, I used the refraction value of 31/60 or 0.516° that exists in Israel, as opposed to the global average of 0.566°, a figure mentioned in the Zmanei Halacha Lema’aseh (p. 11). I also slightly rounded the times. These small tweaks resulted in a trivial maximum 19 second chumra vs the non-rounded global average refraction. The resulting degrees of elevation angle for the Yereim’s bein hashmashos are 2.1°, 2.8° and 3.05°. Solar zenith angles are traditionally calculated using the sun’s position without adjusting for refraction and without accounting for the solar radius (i.e. it is the position of the center of the sun in a vacuum). This does not impact the calculated time, it is simply the convention used.
A future article will address the proper date to use for converting minute based times to degrees below (or above) the horizon and show how to use the KosherJava Zmanim code to calculate this.
I would like to thank Rabbi Yaakov Shakow for his help and suggestions.

Sample Code

Below are code examples for all six variants of the Yereim’s Bein Hashmashos (spelled BainHashmashos in the code).

GeoLocation yerushalayim = new GeoLocation("Jerusalem, Israel", 31.778, 35.2354, 0, TimeZone.getTimeZone("Asia/Jerusalem"));
ComplexZmanimCalendar czc = new ComplexZmanimCalendar(yerushalayim);
Date bh18Min = czc.getBainHasmashosYereim18Minutes();
Date bh3Pt05Deg = czc.getBainHasmashosYereim3Point05Degrees();
Date bh16Pt875Min = czc.getBainHasmashosYereim16Point875Minutes();
Date bh2Pt8Deg = czc.getBainHasmashosYereim2Point8Degrees();
Date bh13Pt5Min = czc.getBainHasmashosYereim13Point5Minutes();
Date bh2Pt1Deg = czc.getBainHasmashosYereim2Point1Degrees();

SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd h:mm:ss a z"); //set the output format
sdf.setTimeZone(czc.getGeoLocation().getTimeZone()); //set the formatter's time zone
System.out.println("Bein Hashmashos 18 min:     " + sdf.format(bh18Min));
System.out.println("Bein Hashmashos 3.05°:      " + sdf.format(bh3Pt05Deg));
System.out.println("Bein Hashmashos 16.875 min: " + sdf.format(bh16Pt875Min));
System.out.println("Bein Hashmashos 2.8°:       " + sdf.format(bh2Pt8Deg));
System.out.println("Bein Hashmashos 13.5 min:   " + sdf.format(bh13Pt5Min));
System.out.println("Bein Hashmashos 2.1°:       " + sdf.format(bh2Pt1Deg));

The output of the above code (assuming that the calendar was set to March 16, 2020).

Bein Hashmashos 18 min:     2020-03-16 5:29:58 PM IST
Bein Hashmashos 3.05°:      2020-03-16 5:29:40 PM IST
Bein Hashmashos 16.875 min: 2020-03-16 5:31:05 PM IST
Bein Hashmashos 2.8°:       2020-03-16 5:30:51 PM IST
Bein Hashmashos 13.5 min:   2020-03-16 5:34:28 PM IST
Bein Hashmashos 2.1°:       2020-03-16 5:34:09 PM IST

KosherJava Zmanim Library Package Name and Build Process Update

The KosherJava zmanim library originally went live in 2004. There was an existing C/C++ zmanim project by Ken Bloom hosted on SourceForge (that was at the time the equivalent of what GitHub is today). The Java package structure name net.sourceforge.zmanim was based on the one used by Ken’s project (despite not being hosted there), and remained that way for 16 years.
On August 3, 2020, Eli Julian modernized the library’s build process from the previously used Ant, to Maven & Gradle. This change simplified the workflow for many developers using the zmanim API. As part of the change, the package name was updated to com.kosherjava.zmanim. The KosherJava zmanim Maven / Gradle artifacts are available at the KosherJava zmanim Maven Central page. A direct Jar download is available at Maven Central (see the KosherJava Downloads page for instructions). The old code was branched into zmanim-1.5 and will allow people who do not want to upgrade to continue to use the old structure (and Ant build process) while continuing to receive emergency bug fixes. This will allow the codebase to use more modern Java language features, without impacting users who want to remain on the legacy code. The new code has a minimum Java 8 requirement (a version released in March 2014). Releases based on the new build process will use SemVer (Semantic Versioning) to make things simpler for developers.
The upgraded build process also allowed automated GitHub’s CodeQL vulnerability scanning for the KosherJava Zmanim project.
You can add the KosherJava zmanim library as a Maven or Gradle dependency. For Maven add the following to your pom.xml.


For Gradle, add the following to your build.gradle file.

implementation group: 'com.kosherjava', name: 'zmanim', version: '2.0.3'

Parsha Code Restored to the KosherJava Zmanim Calendar API

Sunrise CalendarIn the Parsha Code Removed from KosherJava Zmanim Calendar API article posted two years ago, I documented the removal of the parsha code from the KosherJava Zmanim API due to licensing issues. I would like to announce that thanks to Yechiel Paricher, the zmanim library now supports a clean LGPL implementation. Yechiel’s Jan 17, 2019 pull request that was a port of his C libzmanim code, was finally merged on August 22nd, and over the past day, the old formatting code for parshiyos was restored after being changed to work with the new code. The new code not only restores the old functionality, but adds support for the special parshiyos of Shekalim, Zachor, Parah and Hachodesh. It also added support for Shabbos Mevorchim and Machar Chodesh.

Parsha Code Removed from KosherJava Zmanim Calendar API

Sunrise CalendarDue to licensing issues that were brought to my attention last year, the parsha code was removed from the Zmanim API on Aug 22, 2016. In the future I may release the parsha code as a standalone module under the GPL license, or create a new LGPL implementation. To understand this more clearly, the current Zmanim API is licensed under the LGPL, while the parsha code contained some GPL code that had to be removed in order to retain the LGPL license. I would welcome any code submission for parsha code that could be released under the LGPL.

FAQ: Different Parshas Hashavua in Eretz Yisrael Than Chutz La’aretz


Why does the KosherJava Zmanim API seem to sometimes return the incorrect parshas hashavua in Israel?


I have had a number of inquiries this year about the incorrect Parshas Hashavua being returned by the API. In all cases this has been a complaint for Eretz Yisrael and not Chutz La’aretz. The explanation is pretty simple and covered in the API documentation for the JewishCalendar class, but may not be clear to all. When the first day of Pesach occurs on a Shabbos, as it did this year (5775), the last day of Pesach in Eretz Yisrael is on a Friday. The following day is a regular Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael with the usual krias hatorah, but in chutz la’aretz it is the 8th day of Pesach, resulting in Pesach kriah. The following weeks will have different krias hatorah in Eretz Yisrael vs chutz la’aretz, and this will continue for a number of weeks until a double parsha in chutz laaretz is added to equalize the parsha. This last occurred in 2012 (before the release of the calendar functionality in the Zmanim 1.3 release), and will occur again next year. If you are coding to display the Parshas Hashavuah for use in Israel, it is important to set the inIsrael flag (it defaults to false).


A fuller example showing how to set the indicator and showing the comparison of Eretz Yisrael and Chutz Laaretz this year can be seen in this example.

JewishCalendar israelCalendar = new JewishCalendar(5775, JewishDate.NISSAN, 7);
israelCalendar.setInIsrael(true); //set the calendar to Israel
JewishCalendar chutsLaaretzCalendar = new JewishCalendar(5775, JewishDate.NISSAN, 7);
chutsLaaretzCalendar.setInIsrael(false); //not really needed since the API defaults to false
HebrewDateFormatter hdf = new HebrewDateFormatter();
System.out.println("Date\tChutz Laaretz / Eretz Yisrael"));
for(int i = 0; i < 57; i++){
	israelCalendar.forward(); //roll the date forward a day
	chutsLaaretzCalendar.forward(); //roll the date forward a day
	if(chutsLaaretzCalendar.getDayOfWeek() == 7){ //ignore weekdays
		System.out.println(hdf.formatParsha(chutsLaaretzCalendar) + "\t" + hdf.formatParsha(israelCalendar) + " \\ " + hdf.format(chutsLaaretzCalendar));

the output of this is

Date               Chutz Laaretz / Eretz Yisrael
8 Nissan, 5775     Tzav / Tzav
15 Nissan, 5775     / 
22 Nissan, 5775     / Shmini
29 Nissan, 5775    Shmini / Tazria Metzora
6 Iyar, 5775       Tazria Metzora / Achrei Mos Kedoshim
13 Iyar, 5775      Achrei Mos Kedoshim / Emor
20 Iyar, 5775      Emor / Behar
27 Iyar, 5775      Behar Bechukosai / Bechukosai
5 Sivan, 5775      Bamidbar / Bamidbar

It should be noted that this discrepancy is not rare and happens about 25% of the calendar years.